Trade Theories Discussion

Trade Theories DiscussionTrade Theory Lecture #2 Purpose of Theory  Help us describe and explain state (country) behavior  Why do states trade? Why do some states have different trade policies?  Each theory or perspective emphasizes different values, actors, and solutions   In IPE we can blend perspectives together – flexible, multidimensional, overlap IMPORTANT – these are analytical approaches, we should not use them to label states – but rather use them as a method of inquiry/schools of thought  “It seems to me, the best way to describe America’s trade policy might be mercantilism because …” – this is correct  “America is mercantilist” – this is incorrect Mercantilism (economic nationalism/realism)  Friedrich List and Alexander Hamilton  IPE is characterized by distributional conflict or competition  Zero sum game – I win, you lose  Given this perspective about the world, a close relationship is needed between economic activity (the market) and the state  The state should play a large role in determining how a society’s resources are allocated – picking ‘winners and losers’  Economic policy used to channel resources to those economic activities that promote and protect the national interest  Trade is to be valued for exports – but imports are discouraged   WHY?? Can you think of an example?  Economic protectionism – especially of ‘infant industries’  If you leave the market alone – ‘market failure’ Statist or ‘industrial policy’ Mercantilism in Action  Traditionally we think of mercantilism during the era of colonialism 1500-1800    Thinkers like List and Hamilton exist within the competitive world arena  To compete, you must develop, increase industrial exports – run positive trade balance  You do this through government intervention and protectionism Today, neo-mercantilism was revived in the 1970s/80s  Decline of American economic hegemony = more competition (Japan)  Crises of 1970/80s led to a desire for more attention to economics and state intervention A modern country where mercantilism might describe its behavior?  China – heavy involvement of the state/government to pick winners/losers and where to invest state resources – for national development/global expansion  The U.S. under President Trump has started to push back on this – competition! Liberalism (there are many variations)  Adam Smith and David Ricardo  IPE is essentially harmonious – people behave rationally, and when there is money to make, why fight? – mutually beneficial  Economic activity is not about enhancing state power – individuals drive the market and their pursuit of wealth  Governments should make little effort to influence the country’s trade policy or to shape who wins/loses →’free markets’ or laissez-faire  This is not Adam Smith  All trade is good – trade surpluses are not the most important thing  When the government gets in the way of the market (i.e. regulation) – leads to ‘state failure’  The invisible hand – markets will manage themselves Capitalism or ‘market orthodoxy’ Liberalism in Action  Remember – international liberalism is not the same as liberalism in American domestic politics – there is some overlap, but don’t confuse them  Classic liberalism – 1700 – 1800s with Smith and Ricardo  Repeal of the Corn Laws in Britain in 1846 – free trade and its mutual benefits  Economic liberalism is revived after WWII – GATT   Neoliberalism took hold in the 1980s – Milton Friedman, Reagan and Thatcher   Post-war economic order – embedded liberalism via regimes/institutions Exported around the world – negative connotation in places like Latin America A modern example that economic liberalism would explain?  Regional free trade pacts – NAFTA, the European Union, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Marxism Structuralism  Karl Marx  Critique of capitalism/liberals and the ‘structures’ it creates – classes   Markets exist within a social environment and they interact Capitalism leads to an increasing concentration of wealth and inequality – small wealthy elite  The capitalist class (the owners of capital) make decisions and the state operates as an agent of this class – therefore, large corporations make policy for how resources will be used – winners/losers, trade policy, etc..  The division of classes would eventually lead to a revolution by the workers and replace capitalism with socialism  Marxist also critiques capitalism on a global level  In the search for wealth, the global elite promoted foreign policies of imperialism   Dominating markets/resources overseas – e.g. US corporations in Latin America This creates a global bifurcation of classes – rich and poor countries with the same level of exploitation by greedy capitalists – ‘dependency theory’ Marxism or Structuralism in Action  Marxist ideas 1800s, catch on in early 1900s – Russian Revolution   Marxism both describes state behavior and provides a solution – replace capitalism with socialism/communism    Response to the industrial revolution and WWI – exploitation/class struggle Global competition between economic models – Cold War 1945-1989 Related ideas of dependency theory – born in Latin America 1960s  Advanced capitalist states (like the US) keep countries in the Global South from achieving economic development – instead keep them ‘dependent’  This dependency plays a role in the global distribution of wealth/power A modern example that Marxism would help explain?  Exploitation by big corporations of developing countries or global economic institutions that are largely run by Western/capitalist countries (WTO, IMF, G20) Other Theories  Constructivism  Socially constructed facts are what matter – collectively held beliefs like money  A community of thought/people and their shared beliefs determine what is included in state behavior – state’s ‘sense of self’    Who are my economic allies? What economic model do I ‘identify’ with? Feminism  Gender is the key source of analysis – the patriarchy has led to unequal economic relations between genders  Economic policies impact, ignore, and damage women – critical theory Environmentalism  The relationship between economics and the environment key determinant  Capitalism and other policies can ignore the environmental impact due to its focus on wealth – also a critical theory https://www.cnbc.com/2020/08/24/deal-over-american-lobster-helps-to-ease-us-eu-tradetensions.html I found an article about a recent deal struck by the United States and the European Union in an effort to end a tariff dispute over U.S. lobster exports. A brief summary is that the US and EU have been having lots of trade trouble in recent years under the Trump administration who has pushed for more trade protectionism since taking office. This recent deal, however, seems to be showing a slight improvement in relations between the two sides as the EU has agreed to end tariffs on US frozen and live lobster – which has been a struggling industry in the US recently. In exchange, the US has promised to slash duties on certain EU goods. The hope is that this ‘mini deal’ will lead to more amicable relations between the US and Europe on broader trade-related issues, such as steel and aluminum tariffs and disputes over European state subsidies to its aircraft industries. I can use two trade theories to explain the recent trade relations between the US and EU. First, it seems that mercantilism has some explanatory power for how these two sides have been putting tariffs on each other to protect their own domestic industries. This seems to be more confrontational as mercantilism predicts, and that countries are more selfish in trying to sell their own products instead of buying imports from abroad. On the other hand, there also seems to be some liberalism at work here too. The fact that the US and EU are able to come together and agree on some lowering of tariffs, shows that harmony and cooperation is possible. And that free trade and laissez faire economics is the preferred outcome, as Smith and Ricardo would advise. Thus liberalism can explain some of this current event as well – everyone should have cheap lobster! …

State Politics

State Politics

State Politics Take Home Midterm

Name:

 

Short Answer. Select 5. 10 pts. each.

 

 

  1. Why care about the work state governments are doing?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. What was the reapportionment revolution and why did it transform state politics?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. “Networks” are big in state politics. What is meant by this, and who is involved?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Why are some legislatures more suitable for careers than others?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Describe why state legislatures are not simple imitations of Congress.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Holyoke and Cummins (2019) and Hankins (2020) attempt to describe a common question about state governments using different theories, methods, and analyses. Briefly describe both articles and make the case for how each takes on the idea of “states as laboratories.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Essay. Select 2. 25 pts. each.

 

  1. One of your friends is convinced that 3rd parties can’t make it to their state’s ballot because they “just have bad ideas,” while another believes it’s a conspiracy created by the Republican and Democratic parties. How do you respond?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Describe, in detail, what federalism is, why federalism evolves, and your take on the current status of federalism. Given the current status, are the states and federal government prepared to deal with COVID-19?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Describe how state political parties can affect candidate behavior, from their entry into politics (nomination) all the way to ambition for higher office.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Extra Credit (+1)

 

How does the following graphic from NPR/ PBS Newshour/ Marist Polling exemplify the role of state governments in federalism?

 

Lone Wolf Terrorism and Mental Health Capstone

Lone Wolf Terrorism and Mental Health CapstoneLone Wolf Terrorism and Mental Health A master’s thesis Submitted to the Faculty of American Public University System by Mark Velasquez In partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Homeland Security Aug 2020 Capstone Professor Dr. Cheryl Seminara The author hereby grants the American Public University System the right to display these contents for educational purposes. The author assumes total responsibility for meeting the requirements set by the United States copyright law for the inclusion of any materials that are not the author’s creation or in the public domain. © Copyright 2020 by Mark Velasquez All rights reserved. DEDICATION The study is dedicated to my family for being my source of inspiration and for giving me the strength to keep me going even when I was close to giving up, who consistently provided their spiritual, emotional, moral, and financial support. To my friends who advised me and shared their words of encouragement that kept me going. I will always remember what you did. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I give thanks to the American Military University for the opportunity they gave me to see my dreams through by allowing me to undertake this degree, which has taken me a step closer to achieving my dreams. I would also want to thank my professor for being patient with me and for guiding me until I finished this project. I would also like to acknowledge the support accorded to me by my family through all my long nights spent with my laptop. ABSTRACT Lone Wolf Terrorism and Mental Health by Mark Velasquez Master of Arts in Criminal Justice American Public University System Dr. Cheryl Ann Seminara Lone wolf attacks have been on the rise despite measures put in place by the U.S. government to curb terrorism. Lone wolf terrorism has been linked with Abu Mohammed’s ideologies. Unlike any other kind of attack, this kind of terrorism is hard to predict. In lone wolf terrorism, there is no organizational recruitment or an organization behind the attack, and the person conducts the act on their own volition. The study below seeks to understand what the driving force of the attackers is and why the measures put in place to combat terrorism have been futile. My research findings show that there is a significant correlation between lone-wolf terrorism and mental health illnesses based on the inhumane behaviors expressed by lone-wolf attackers. Further, the research indicates that despite the policies that have been put in place by the United States to combat terrorism, Lone- wolf terrorism has been on the rise. Keywords: lone wolf, terrorism, recruitment, attack, mental health, and illness. CHAPTER I II PAGE INTRODUCTION 1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 2 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY 3 PURPOSE OF STUDY 4 RESEARCH QUESTION 8 LITERATURE REVIEW 9 LONE WOLF TERRORIST CHARACTERISTICS 11 THE THREAT / PREVALENCE 15 THE IMPACT OF LONE WOLF TERRORISM IN THE US/ THE NEED FOR III IV RESILIENCE 17 RESEARCH DESIGN 21 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 21 FINDINGS 25 INTRODUCTION 25 Figure 1 26 CASE SUBJECTS 29 CASE COMPARISON 42 Figure 2. NUMBER OF LONE WOLF TERRORIST ATTACK IN THE WEST BY VI MOTIVATION 45 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 50 LONE WOLF TERRORISM 1 CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION Lone wolf terrorism is an important subject of research among scholars. It is a fastgrowing form of terrorism threat in western societies, and recently researchers have sought to explore its causes, characteristics, impact, and resilience. Krstic (2018) explains that lonewolf terrorists do not require any monetary assistance and non-theoretical coaching from any nefarious group (pg. 114). This is among the advantages and many other reasons why there is a rise in this phenomenon (Krstić, 2018, pg. 119). Dickson (2015) also highlights’ lone wolf’ as arguably the fastest growing form of terrorism (pg. 2). The undetectable and unpredictable nature of lone-wolf terrorism has made it grow faster than other forms increasing its threat to western civilization (Dickson, 2015, pg. 1). As a result, the intelligence units and law administration nation agencies responsible for fighting terrorism are having a hard time addressing the increasing incidents of lone-wolf terrorism (Dickson, 2015, pg. 2). With the rise in mass shootings, such as the Las Vegas massacre in 2017, the attention on this “single actor” terrorism form has increased in recent scientific studies in different fields, including legal literature and social science (Beydoun, 2017, pg. 1213). Currently, terrorism is a major security threat throughout the world. There are increased efforts to understand the rise of particular terrorism ideologies, public support for those activities, effects, policy efforts, and resilience (Beydoun, 2017, pg. 1214). Researchers recognize that unlike other forms of terrorism, lone-wolf terrorism has many research questions that need to be answered with high-quality data (Dickson, 2015, pg. 2). Bangura (2015) explains that it is easy to single out young Muslim men as susceptible to recruitment to militant recruitment campaigns (pg. 8). However, following attackers the non-affiliation to a particular terror group and the rise in incidents of attacks and injuries, it is an important subject of study in terrorism (Beydoun, 2017, pg. 1213). The single actor terror attack has impacted government LONE WOLF TERRORISM 2 security policies successfully established since the 9/11 attack (Danzell, and Maisonet, 2016, pg. 136). This literature review on lone-wolf terrorism includes scholarly sources that explain its history, global prevalence, and impact on policy and the state’s need for resilience. Statement of the Problem Members of the society are expected to co-exist peacefully and run mutually beneficial initiatives. The presence of deviants in society not only devastates social development, but it serves a significant drain to societies and their constituents. The presences of deviants, such as lone-wolf terrorists, are suggestive of the abnormal functioning of society, therefore the need for urgent redress. Indeed, lone wolf crimes represent a significant issue in contemporary society. This issue is of great concern to stakeholders in society because it deprives society members of harmony that is core to social-economic and political advancements. Lone wolf terrorists have caused huge issues not only for the members of society but also for policymakers and intelligence agents. The prevalence of lone-wolf terrorists petrifies societies across the world, mainly because the nature of these crimes is difficult to comprehend. They are often isolated and withdrawn from other members of society, deeming it extremely challenging to gather information about their malicious intent. From the existing literature, it is convincing that lone wolf terrorism has been a growing threat in the last few decades. As Wilson (2013) postulates, the U.S and other western societies have been experiencing alarming rates of lone wolf crimes, with most of them having adverse impacts on the quality of living for societies. Besides western countries, states such as Canada, Portugal, Poland, and the Netherlands have reported high rates of lonewolf terrorism (Weimann, 2012). The rate of lone wolf crimes accounts for 3% of the total terrorist attacks that have happened in the last ten years. The seriousness of lone-wolf attackers across the world is attributable to a range of extremist tenets and ideological groups. LONE WOLF TERRORISM 3 In the global context, men account for the most significant threat of lone-wolf terrorism. There is a need for studying and understanding lone wolf terrorism phenomena because it would shed light on measures and strategies to curb the problem. An enhanced understanding of the issue would better coexistence in society by eliminating and reducing potential dangers that lone wolf terrorism presents to general members of society. Therefore, a probe into this area would be instrumental in reducing deviant characters in society, thereby enhancing lives. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this qualitative study is to evaluate the association between lone-wolf terrorism and mental health problems and determine the measures that can help address the rising incidences of terrorist activities. The study seeks to expound on the connection between lone-wolf terrorism and mental illness using case studies. This study will entail an examination of the history and current rise of lone-wolf terrorism, followed by an evaluation of the characteristics depicted by lone-wolf actors. Finally, the study will present the threats of lone-wolf terrorism and the impacts of these attacks within the United States. From another dimension, the goals of this study would be to identify and describe concepts underlying the lone wolf crime phenomenon, define lone wolf attacks, investigate the history and current prevalence of the issue, assess the characteristics of lone-wolf crimes, specify associated threats, highlight its impacts in the U.S., and determine the need for resilience. Researchers are interested in establishing the nature of lone-wolf terrorism to identify more relevant measures to contain the problem. A better understanding of this question would help examine why individuals engage in terror activities. For example, it would contribute to the understanding of radical philosophies that see people engage in violent crimes. The unique profile of lone-wolf actors makes it challenging to investigate this phenomenon. In regards to this, this study will articulate on the profile of lone-wolf actors to better understand their personality and define avenues that help eliminate deviant behaviors. LONE WOLF TERRORISM 4 The study is also inspired by the need to recommend policies and initiatives to alleviate lonewolf criminal activities. The study is also motivated toward assessing the occurrence of lonewolf crimes and levels of the threat they pose to society as large. It is believed that its occurrence varies from region to another, highlighting the need for understanding patterns pertinent to this phenomenon. When the purpose of the study is fulfilled, governments among other stakeholders will have improved capacity to respond to instances and threats brought about by lone wolf crimes. Research Question Why is there a rise in lone-wolf terrorism? Research Design The research strategy for the study is both doctrinal and empirical. The doctrinal study included analysis of research articles, books, and multiple case studies. An empirical study primarily covered questionnaires and interviews. In general, positivism, post-positivism, and interpretivism are the three core research philosophies that offer different views necessary for understanding internal and external social realities. Like research produced by scientists, research-based on positivism viewpoints uses experiments and research strategies and focuses on the generalization of the research findings. In contrast, interpretivism assumes the existence of several realities that need to be discovered by the researcher by actively interacting with the subject under investigation. (Cresswell, 2003). From the social behavior perspective, the positivist belief that empirical investigation is focusing the systematic and rational investigation. This approach is also called “naive realism.” To provide different options and understanding to that of naïve realism, the interpretive paradigm came to life with the focus on understanding and significance of the social world; it seeks to understand situations, processes, influences, and descriptive analysis (Guba & Lincoln, 2005). Interpretivism, therefore, has the epistemological stance that LONE WOLF TERRORISM 5 recognizes the social aspect of research, does not see the world as orderly or quantifiable, and recognizes other influences. Based on the above, the research leans to apply the later, given the fact that it focuses on understanding multiple realities. (Krauss, 2005). One of the objectives of this research is to understand the processes, influences, dynamics, actors, and the interplay of lone-wolf terrorism. Based on this objective, the research strategy employed in this study will be interpretivism. Using interpretivism as a theoretical point of departure, the researcher conducted a thorough, holistic, and in-depth investigation of data collection and analysis. In a bid to investigate the facets of lone-wolf attackers, define the distinct profiles, and possibly make reasonable conclusions and recommendations, the study needs to employ a solid, reliable research approach. Without a reliable research approach, the study would likely not head in the required trajectory, or it would yield substandard findings. This study adheres to a qualitative approach methodology. It utilizes existing literature and case studies to generate data about lone terror attackers, thereby shedding light on proposals and protocols that could be used to enhance the situation of interest. LONE WOLF TERRORISM 6 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW The history and development of lone-wolf terrorism are among the key subjects of research among scholars in recent scientific studies. Lone wolf terrorism refers to the act of deliberately promoting fear and threat of violence by one person seeking for political change by advancing individualized ideology or that of another organization independently without accomplices (Beydoun, 2017, pg. 1213). Dickson (2015) provides significant events that lead to the radicalization of individuals without suspicion by the authorities (pg. 3). The history of lone-wolf terrorism trace back to the leaderless resistance of the nineteenth century (Dickson, 2015, pg. 4). Nesser (2012) explains that anarchists in the 19th century staged political assassination as single individuals (pg. 64). In the 1980s, extremist groups like Ku Klux Klan rose against the US government. During the crackdown, the group founded the ideology of individuals as a critical tool to rise against the government (Dickson, 2015, pg. 5). The leaderless guerrilla warfare and individual terrorism rose in the 1990s, even among members of AL Qaeda. Bakker and DeGraaf (2014) explain the word ”lone-wolf terrorism” became popular by Tom Metzger and Alex Curtis in the 1990s. They incited radicals to plot attacks as individuals to evade being arrested (Bakker and DeGraaf, 2014, pg. 46). Therefore, the term lone wolf rebel is by no means an unusual strategy but an ancient approach that has resurfaced source (Baker & DeGraaf, 2014 pg. 47; Nesser, 2012 pg. 62; Dickson, 2015 pg. 3). Lone-wolf terrorism interest rose in both the terrorism and counter-terrorism organizations after Andres Breivik executed seventy-seven individuals in the states of Utova and Oslo, Norway, in 2011 (Baker & DeGraaf, 2014, pg. 50). Nesser (2012) also explains that leaderless resistance is an important strategy that militant groups use when they are under pressure from the counterterrorism efforts (pg. 67). LONE WOLF TERRORISM 7 Dickson (2015) associates the current rise in lone-wolf terrorism to the ideology of Abu Mohamed al-Adnani, the Islamic State (IS) terror group. He incited the Muslims and IS followers and sympathizers to eliminate the unbelieving enemies (Dickson, 2015, pg. 3). Particularly they foster significant change from the development of radical opinions to radical actions without detection (Dickson, 2015, pg. 3). Dickson (2015) cites McCauley and Moskalenko (2014) that it is problematic for individuals to change from advancing radical opinions to radical actions (pg. 7). Publicly known extremists, including by law enforcement and intelligence despite constant monitoring and investigation, can attack without detection. In most instances, some of the individuals who advance radical actions start to advance the heuristic ideas as activists demanding policy change (Dickson, 2015, pg. 4). Nesser (2012) also explains the difficulties security agencies and intelligence experiences seeking to prevent the attacks propagated by the single actors (pg. 6). The individuals are anonymous, and they plan the attacks in an isolated space utilizing their discretion to select targets and the forms of attacks. When the security agencies increase the security measures, they either change the form of attack or the target depending on their risk aversion. Islamic militant groups publicize their attacks, but the lone wolf attackers are likely to remain anonymous without publication of their affiliations (Nesser, 2012, pg. 67). Nesser (2012) distinguishes the current state of single actor terrorism (lone-wolf terrorism) from the historical leaderless resistance. In leaderless resistance, the lone attackers maintained horizontal networks but avoided interaction with a central command. In lone-wolf terrorism, the individuals act independently without accomplices (Nesser, 2012, pg. 68). The lone wolf terrorists are isolated from organized networks, although other times, they are considered to have contact with organized extremists for radicalization. However, the nature of their contact is poorly specified. Hence, lone-wolf terrorists are clearly defined as individuals engaging in terror activities on their own without requiring any monetary LONE WOLF TERRORISM 8 assistance and non-theoretical coaching from any nefarious groups (Nesser, 2012, pg. 72; Krstić, 2018 pg. 120). Beydoun (2017) explain that mass shootings are among the most form of terror attacks by single individuals in America. Differences occur in the presumption of terrorism, depending on the ethnicity of the killer. When the perpetrator is Muslim, it is easy to presume terrorism, but it is dismissed for non-Muslim white. Lone Wolf Terrorists Characteristics Researchers are also concerned about the radicalization process that yields lone wolf terrorism. It is the primary force for people to be involved in terror, and in most instances, deradicalization is an effective strategy to combat terrorism (Decker & Pyrooz, 2011, pg. 153). Individuals and groups engage in terror action following radicalized beliefs. McCauley and Moskalenko (2014) explain the characteristics of people who foster terror attacks as a lone actor creating a profile using a two-pyramid model. The two-pyramid model indicates a difference in advancing radical opinion and propagating radical action. Unlike group-based terrorists where the individual characteristics (profile) are not critical to terror actions, lonewolf terrorists have a unique profile (McCauley and Moskalenko, 2014, pg. 69). Leaders of Islamic militant groups advance specific ideologies and push members to actions (Bangura, 2015). This distinction is important since, with internet tools like video posts, chat rooms, and social networks, there is an extensive spread of radicalized beliefs (Decker & Pyrooz, 2011, pg. 153). Upholding the radical ideas and advancing them is different from the advancement of violence. While the radicalized beliefs among members of a terror group can be mobilized to terror activity, how the lone wolf terrorists eventually foster terror attacks is a major concern (McCauley & Moskalenko, 2014, pg. 69). McCauley and Moskalenko (2014) reviewed three lone-wolf terrorist cases and compared the results of assassins and school attackers. The results highlighted differences in radical opinion and radical action. This result is consistent LONE WOLF TERRORISM 9 with previous findings on the radicalization process and terrorism. Decker and Pyrooz (2011) provide evidence for the radicalization of members in a terror group. However, they also found that the extent to which the radicalized beliefs result in an action is problematic (pg. 153). McCauley and Moskalenko (2014) describe “lone wolf” as either ‘‘disconnecteddisordered’’ or ‘‘caring-compelled’’ individuals. ‘‘Disc …

Terrorist Crisis Simulation Discussion

Terrorist Crisis Simulation Discussion

Terrorist Crisis Simulation. As a class you are collectively the president’s National Security Council. A crisis has occurred and the President of the United States will respond to this crisis as you, the class, advises.

Last Week:

The Islamic State of Khorasan (more about this terrorist organization at: https://www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/situating-the-emergence-of-the-islamic-state-of-khorasan) stormed the U.S. Consulate in Peshawar, Pakistan and had taken 6 American hostages. Claiming to speak for the Islamic State, the Khorasan terrorists are demanding that the U.S. begin withdrawing all military forces out of the Middle East so that they may re-establish an Islamic Caliphate. The U.S. had 1 week to comply or else the terrorists would begin killing hostages. The terrorists also threatened to activate sleeper cells in the United States. However, the FBI and CIA had very little evidence of any active sleeper cells in the United States. (Case 1 Attached)

The Plot Thickens:

Despite their pledge to wait a week, last night the Khorasan terrorists have killed 3 of the 6 hostages. News of these deaths and their demands is all over the media as the terrorists aired the graphic murders live on social media. The terrorists again threatened to activate sleeper cells across the nation – but this time the threat included a target lists, published on social media, including: shopping malls, schools, and gas stations across the United States.

The media has been airing wall to wall coverage of one of the hostages in particular, as his wife in the United States is about to give birth to their first child.

As of this morning a sheriff in Brazoria County, Texas began rounding up and jailing Muslim Americans of Middle Eastern decent, fearing they are Jihadists that have infiltrated Texas via the porous border with Mexico. It appears the Texas Governor is being refusing to respond for political reasons.

The president – your boss – has an election coming up and wants to know what his options are. Currently, the President is currently at 52 percent in the polls – but that number is well within the margin of error. If, at the end of this simulation, the president is at 49 percent or less, the president will lose re-election, and the class, as members of the National Security Council, will also be out of work.

The CIA & NSA has discovered some potential chatter regarding potential attacks within America as they now have had time to process more data collected through their massive digital domestic surveillance program. The CIA has also identified one of the Khorasan terrorists and is reporting that they currently hold this terrorist’s brother in Guantanamo Bay. The terrorist’s brother is not cooperating with any investigation or questioning thus far.

Based on these new developments, make an argument regarding what action you think the president should take. The president is asking for specific advice on two specific questions:

  • Should the President mobilize the National Guard to stop the unconstitutional detainment of Muslim Americans in Brazoria County, Texas? Yes –or– No?
  • Should the terrorist’s brother, who may have potential information be tortured? Yes –or– No? You must record your vote via the online polling link posted by your instructor. (Voting is worth 5 points of you initial post score.)

Respond to the arguments presented by at least two of your peers.

Please respond to the initial question by day 5 and be sure to post two additional times to peers and/or instructor by day 7. The initial post by day 5 should be 75 to 150 words, but may go longer depending on the topic. If you use any source outside of your own thoughts, you should reference that source. Include solid grammar, punctuation, sentence structure, and spelling.

The president will follow through with the majority opinion of the class on each item voted on. You will find out the results next week.

Before next week, each action that carries a majority of class support at the end of the week will be taken by the President. Your instructor will then flip a coin to determine whether or not your decisions are successful as follows:

On Question 1, if the class selects “Yes” (Send in the National Guard) and the instructor flips:

  • Heads will represent the public supporting the president’s decision to mobilize the National Guard against the rogue sheriff in Texas in order to restore the Constitutional rights of Muslim Americans. The president’s poll numbers will increase by 3 points.
  • Tails will represent the public rejecting the president’s decision to mobilize the National Guard in Texas. The public begins to see the President as over stepping his authority. The president’s poll numbers will decrease by 3 points.

On Question 1, if the Class select “No” (Do Not Send National Guard) and the instructor flips:

  • Heads will represent the public supporting the president’s decision to not mobilize the National Guard. The president’s poll numbers will increase by 3 percentage points
  • Tails will represent the public rejecting the president’s decision to not mobilize the National Guard. The public begins to see the President as weak. The president’s poll numbers will decrease by 3 percentage points.

On Question 2, if the class selects “Yes” (Torture the Terrorist) and the instructor flips:

  • Heads will represent the public remaining in the dark about the terrorist’s brother in custody. The president’s poll numbers remain unchanged.
  • Tails will represent a media leak that the President is authorizing the use of torture. The public sees this as abhorrent and inhumane. The president’s poll numbers will decrease by an additional 3 percentage points.

On Question 2, if the Class select “No” (Do Not Torture the Terrorist) and the instructor flips:

  • Heads will represent the public remaining in the dark about the terrorist’s brother in custody. The president’s poll numbers remain unchanged.
  • Tails will represent a media leak that the President potentially could have authorized the torture and the public rejecting the president’s decision to not torture. The public begins to see the President as weak. The president’s poll numbers will decrease by an additional 3 percentage points.

New York Times News Summary

New York Times News Summary

This is a class of political science. The assignment involves finding an article about international relations on New York Times and please summarizing it.

Note: The article must be find in “opinion” area on New York Times website!!! You can find this button on home page.

 

Clark Unethical Act or Cost of Doing Business Reflection Paper

Clark Unethical Act or Cost of Doing Business Reflection Paper

Part 1:

answer each of the questions/prompts below with 1-2 paragraphs using concepts from the text or your own research (be sure to cite correctly) APA Format

Click here to read Case Study #2

Click here to learn how you will be graded.

Questions

  • Should bribery be considered an unethical act or just another cost of doing business? Explain.

PART 2:

The reflection papers should articulate your impressions of the course material. ThIS Part should be in the vicinity of one (1) page single-space (12 font size & 1-inch margins).

Complete the “3.2 Leadership Strengths Questionnaire” in Introduction to Leadership textbook (p.71-73)

Click here to learn how you will be graded.

  • Discuss how your score aligns with the material in these chapters and whether you think this questionnaire is an accurate assessment of your view of leadership.

 

Non-Traditional Security

Subject of the paper: Non-Traditional Security

Requirement: The professed provided me with the first question from the attached pdf to respond. The question should be responded under the form of a Research Paper of about 1000 words,APA format (not counting reference page and cover page).

The question: Terrorism and political violence are challenges in South Asia. Non-State Actors (NSA), such as terrorist organisations, have espoused a wide variety of causes, including national selfdetermination and militant religious extremism. NSA has exploited international events to promote radical and extremism in that region. Examine how South Asia should counterterrorism and focus on strengthening multilateral engagement.

Format: The paper should be written in APA format , and should contain up to date references (no older than 5 years). They should also be incorporated under the form of in text citation. The text should be double spaced, times new roman, 12 pt,double spaced. Check the attached pdf for more infos.

*** The work will be checked for plagiarism through Turnitin by the professor. It is essential for everything to be free of plagiarism otherwise sanctions will be imposed***

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Thank you for your support

Counterterrorism and Multilateral Engagement in South Asia Paper

Counterterrorism and Multilateral Engagement in South Asia Paper

Subject of the paper: Non-Traditional Security

Requirement: The professed provided me with the first question from the attached pdf to respond. The question should be responded under the form of a Research Paper of about 1000 words,APA format (not counting reference page and cover page).

The question: Terrorism and political violence are challenges in South Asia. Non-State Actors (NSA), such as terrorist organisations, have espoused a wide variety of causes, including national selfdetermination and militant religious extremism. NSA has exploited international events to promote radical and extremism in that region. Examine how South Asia should counterterrorism and focus on strengthening multilateral engagement.

Format: The paper should be written in APA format , and should contain up to date references (no older than 5 years). They should also be incorporated under the form of in text citation. The text should be double spaced, times new roman, 12 pt,double spaced. Check the attached pdf for more infos.

*** The work will be checked for plagiarism through Turnitin by the professor. It is essential for everything to be free of plagiarism otherwise sanctions will be imposed***

——–

Thank you for your support

Vast Star Wars Franchise Literature Review

Vast Star Wars Franchise Literature Review

Abstract:

The vast Star Wars franchise itself has long had political overtones. It has long been known that Star Wars was originally an allegory for US imperialism specifically around the Vietnam War; whereas the US is the evil empire, and the Vietcong were the righteous rebels. These allegories can be continued throughout the films, through the prequels and into the most recent sequels. However, if we look at the larger picture a more interesting understanding and allegory begins to take place. In turn, if you scan the landscape of American and global affairs past and present, you will find a staggering abundance of a Star Wars-ization of politics and war.

Topic: Critique of colonialism, militarism and neoliberalism in Star Wars.

Lit review: Must have at least 10 Peer reviewed sources. Size 12 times new roman, double spaced.

Federalism in the US Paper

Federalism in the US PaperATLEAST 4 PAGES You MUST draw heavily from the textbook when writing each of your essays. I want LOTS (and I mean LOTS) of examples from the textbook complete with page numbers. You can either put the page numbers in parentheses at the end of your sentence or refer to the page numbers directly in a sentence: “On page 56 of the textbook it says…” If you do not include page numbers from the textbook in your essays you will receive a grade of ZERO on the exam. Also, Do NOT use direct quotes from the textbook: write the essays in your own words. If you use direct quotes you will fail the exam. Please note that you can ONLY use the course textbook for this exam; no outside sources, such as the internet, can be used. Should you be tempted to do this it will considered an act of plagiarism and you will receive both a zero on the exam and an F for the course. There will be no exceptions to this policy so if you have any questions please ask me before you begin working on the exam.