Descriptive Statistics is the use of statistical techniques to describe data, thereby enabling you to:

  • Distinguish between measures of central tendency, a measure of variability, measures of shape, and measures of association.
  • Understand the meaning of mean, median, mode, quartile, percentile, and range.
  • Compute mean, median, mode, percentile, quartile, range, variance, standard deviation, and mean absolute deviation on ungrouped data.
  • Differentiate between a sample and population variance and standard deviation.
  • Understand the meaning of standard deviation as it is applied by using the empirical rule and Chebyshev’s theorem.
  • Compute the mean, mode, standard deviation, and variance on grouped data.
  • Understand skewness, kurtosis, and box and whisker plots.
  • Compute a coefficient of correlation and interpret it.


The measure of Central Tendency:


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  • Ungrouped Data: One type of measure that is used to describe a set of data is the measure of central tendency.
  • Mode: The mode is the most frequently occurring value in a set of data.
  • Median: The median is the middle value in an ordered array of numbers.
  • Mean: The arithmetic mean is the average of a group of numbers and is computed by summing all numbers and dividing by the number of numbers.
  • Percentiles: Percentiles are measures of central tendency that divide a group of data into 100 parts.
  • Quartiles: Quartiles are measures of central tendency that divide a group of data into four subgroups of parts.