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Ecological restoration Paper
Write a minimum one-page summary on the main drivers and purposes of ecological restoration of a specific area in the Upper Clark Fork Superfund Complex.Diagnosis and goal setting in restoration Reading: Course book: Chapter 1.5., pages 32-34 Case study M. page 513 Observation of degradation Something must change Based on past changes and future goals Decision on how to change Restoration We will learn to build conceptual models that can be used as a diagnostic tool for 1. Evaluating the underlying causes of current problems 2. Identifying options for solving them Cause – Effect relationship CONCEPTUAL ECOLOGICAL MODEL graphical representation of important pathways and linkages between drivers and ecological attributes Building the Modell 1st step – Identify: • Important drivers • Direct • Indirect • Natural (fires, floods, storms, etc.) • Human-caused (mining, agriculture, forestrty, building) • Ecological attributes of concern • Species • Functions • Services Building the Modell 2nd step – Pathway determination Link drivers to attributes (how did degradation occur?) • Top-down (study changes that drivers directly cause) • Stressors (immidiate consequences, direct cause) • Bottom-up (understanding ecological responses to stressors) • Ecological effects (local responses) Top-down inv. Restoration options No immidiate consequence Bottom-up inv. Sargent’s cherry palm 1st step 2nd step Direct driver Stressor Deforestation Overexploitation Decreased habitat Decline in population Ecological effect Species becomes threatened of extinction Restoration options • Targeted breading programs in botanical gardens • Propagation and reintroduction • National Park Conceptual ecological model as diagnostic tool Multiple drivers 1st step Direct drivers SPECIES INTRODUCTION HABITAT CONVERSION • Increased fire incidence • Vehicle traffic • Illegal wood harvest • High risk of dieback OVEREXPOITATION • Fewer kangaroos • (More dogs, foxes) POLLUTION • Waste dumping 2nd step Stressor Ecological effect Spread of veldt grass • Loss of Habitat • Decline of native species Conceptual ecological model by land managers Drivers Conceptual Ecological Model of Biscayne Bay (Fl) -for large areas State aquatic preserve since 1975. Safety valves: series of shallow sand flats separated by tidal flow channels Let mangrove develop Draw a Conceptual Ecological Model of the case study you handed in for the humancaused ecological change assignment. Motivations and Incentives for Ecological Restoration Indirect Drivers of Ecological Restoration Why do we attempt to repair what is damaged? Human-caused Ecological Change – Causes and Effects Indirect drivers They underline the direct drivers of human caused change Ecological Restoration m o t i v a t i o n Indirect drivers Indirect drivers • Cultural • Economic • Demographic • Technological • Sociopolitical Each driver is a potential force for restoration. The more drivers play together the more significant will be the change Cultural drivers Restoration reflects what people value Morally, socially, aesthetically, ideologically Values that affect how ecosystems are used are cultural drivers Cultural drivers In most societies the environment should pose no or minimal risk to human healt Parrot tailings 270,000 cubic yards of tailings 15 times worse than Berkeley Pit As is 10 times, Cd 800 times, Cu 7500 times, Pb 6 times, Zn 100 times the water standard. Cultural drivers A coalition of Montana citizens who support a comprehensive clean-up and restoration of the historic Silver Bow Creek corridor http://www.restoreourcreek.org/ Cultural drivers Cultural drivers Indigenous societies Restore qualities and attributes to past relationships with the land ! Cultural drivers Gordon Meadows, OR Indian camas (Camassia quamash) Cultural drivers Western red cedar (Thuja plicata) Cultural drivers Nisqually tribe MT Rainier NP Economic drivers Restoration programs Economic growth increases both natural capital and ecosystem service Economic drivers BeDor et al. 2014 Economic drivers Working for water – Remove invasive trees for water management • • • • http://www.rainharvest.co.za/2010/03/28/working-for-water-programme-is-working/ 1995 South Africa Employing 24,000 Clean up 150,000 ha Stream flow increased by 46 million cubic meters The top ten invaders are Syringa, Pine, Black wattle, Lantana, Rooikrans, Port Jackson, Mesquite, Bugweed, Hakea and Opuntia sp. Demographic drivers Current World Population: 7,814,973,776 Key driver on both global and regional basis Demographic drivers Demographic drivers World population density Demographic drivers World and water availability Demographic drivers • Urban migration 54% live in urban areas Opportunity for reforestation Demographic drivers • Agricultural intensification Driver for reforestation Goods can be grown in a smaller area Demographic drivers • Age of population Different habits of the generations Technological drivers • New ways for restoration • Lower risk for human health e.g. selective chemicals for invaders; new technologies for cleaning water, soil etc. Technological drivers Sea lamprey on lake trout Selective toxicant – lampricide Technological drivers 28 Sociopolitical drivers • They change fundamental aspects of decision making in society • Depends on participants, role of government vs. private sector, levels of education • They are formalized in laws and policies Sociopolitical drivers • Sociopolitical change • New technology • Binational decision making US-Canada Great Lake Fisheries Commission Lamprey project Sociopolitical drivers e.g. Eastern Europe – did not address industrial damage, no public funds could be used for restoration – lack of effective sociopolitical foundation Poland vs. East Germany …
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