Empirical Traditions of Audience Research

The test will include multiple choice, multiple answer, true or false, fill-in-the-blank, and short answer questions. The questions below are meant to guide your study and help you organize your thoughts before taking the test – not to be a comprehensive list of what will be on the test.

In addition to working on these study questions, I strongly recommend testing yourself on your classmates’ test questions in the discussion forums. Answer the questions and check your answers in the reading. Most of the questions on the test will come from the homework questions written by you and your classmates. Also, don’t forget that some of the question on the test will refer back to previous materials.

What are the types of signs outlined by Charles Pierce?

What do De Saussure’s terms, sign, signifier and signified refer to?

What does a semiologist study?

Who discusses “mythologies” and what does this term mean in the context of studying media content?

What is the difference between denotative and connotative meanings?

What does Naomi Klein see as the new way of advertising?

Which cultural critic uses semiotic analysis of advertising to analyze the construction of beauty standards?

What are the elements of Tsvetan Todorov’s standard plot structure?

What aspects of media content do paradigmatic and syntagmatic analysis focus on?

What does it mean to say that a sign is “polysemic”?

What does narrative analysis study? And genre analysis? How are they different and similar?

What does discourse analysis study?

What is “content analysis” and what are its advantages and disadvantages compared to qualitative forms of studying media content above?

What are the main concerns of the theorists of the Frankfurt School?

What do Frankfurt School theorists mean when they talk about standardization and pseudo-individualization?

What are the key criticisms made by other scholars of the Frankfurt School approach?

What are some examples of what Althusser calls “ideological state apparatuses”?

Who coined the term “hegemony” and what does it refer to?

What is “commodity fetishism”?

What does Stuart Hall argue about the relationship between discourse and reality?

What does the concept of “cultural imperialism” refer to?

What ethical dilemmas are raised by cultural appropriation?

What are the five filters on media content that Herman and Chomsky identified? How does each work and what is their collective result?

What are the news values defined by Galtung and Ruge? What does each value refer to?

How do the following terms relate to the process of news construction: gate-keeping; agenda setting; news values; selection; construction?

What is the relationship between good-faith journalism, propaganda, and the “propaganda function” of news media?