Evolution and Diversity of Life

Evolution and Diversity of Life

Chapter 20 and 21 Worksheet


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  1. Describe the lytic cycle and the lysogenic cycle.
  2. Most viral infections, including the common cold, chickenpox, mononucleosis and Ebola, are untreatable. Few antiviral drugs exist, and those in use may cause severe side effects to the patient. Why are viral infections so difficult to treat? Why do you think antiviral drugs cause severe side effects? Are there steps in viral reproduction that new antiviral medications could target?
  3. Antibiotic medication work by targeting specific structures and function in bacterial cells. Side effects in the patient are usually minimal, because their eukaryotic cells do not possess the same structures and characteristics as the prokaryotic pathogens. What structures or functions of the prokaryotic cell would serve as good targets for new antibiotics?
  4. We know that bacteria and archaea are very diverse in their metabolic capabilities, such as the consumption of organic waste and carbon dioxide and the creation of others such as oxygen, alcohol, methane, nitrates, and antibiotics. Amazingly these known capabilities only come form the 1-10% of prokaryotes that have been identified. Scientists hypothesize that at least 90% are undiscovered and have potential metabolic capabilities we could harness to benefit human life. If you were a scientist, what metabolic capability of bacteria would you try to discover to solve a human or environmental problem? Why?
  5. How does a vaccine prevent a viral disease? Did you get the CoVid 19 vaccine – why or why not?
  6. Archaea supergroups – fill in the table below
Name Features Examples


  1. Protists, mostly those that live in the ocean, perform approximately half of the photosynthesis on Earth. How might their large role in the carbon cycle impact climate change?
  2. Certain protists species cause human disease that are difficult to treat and are often deadly. How does the evolutionary relatedness of humans and protists explain the difficultly of treating a person infected with a pathogenic protist?
  3. What causes red tide? How does red tide impact you? Red tides occur every year, but some years are worse than others. What factors do you think would contribute to a particularly bad year for red tide?