Evolutionary History and Biology

Evolutionary History and Biology

Question 1 2 pts Which of the following is (are) problematic when the goal is to construct phylogenies that accurately reflect evolutionary history? polyphyletic taxa O polyphyletic taxa and paraphyletic taxa O monophyletic taxa paraphyletic taxa Question 2 2 pts Eukaryotes that do not share many anatomical similarities can still be placed together on the same phylogenetic tree by comparing their O homologous genes that are poorly conserved O homologous genes that are highly conserved mitochondrial genomes plasmids In this Figure, which similarly inclusive taxon is represented as descending from the same common ancestor as Canidae? Order Family Genus Species Felidae Panthera Panthera pardus (leopard) Carnivora Taxidea Mustelidae Taxidea taxus (American badger) Lutra lutra (European otter) Lutra Canidae Canis latrans (coyote) Canis Canis lupus (gray wolf) Lutra Felidae Mustelidae Carnivora Question 4 2 pts Use the 2 trees below to answer the question. Applying the principle of parsimony to the trait “ability to fly,” which of the two phylogenetic trees is better? worm COW moth bat bird W Tree 1 worm moth COW bat bird Tree 2 Tree 2 1 Both trees are equally parsimonious. Tree 2 Tree 1 Since the trees show different evolutionary relationships, you cannot determine which is more parsimonious. Question 5 2 pts Prokaryotes exhibit taxis by utilizing its flagella pili endospore fimbriae Question 6 2 pts Salmonella and E.coli belong to the phyla Chlamydia Gram-positives Proteobacteria Spirochetes Question 7 2 pts Which gets its energy from sunlight and its carbon from ingesting other organisms? photoatutotrphs chemoheterotroph photoheterotroph O chemoautotroph Question 8 2 pts One differences between gram-negative and gram positive bacteria are that gram-negative have a thin peptidoglycan and an outer membrane gram-negative have a tick peptidoglycan gram-positive are bacilli in shape gram-negative are cocci in shape Question 9 2 pts There is no sunlight in hydrothermal vent communities, therefore there are no heterotrophs chemoheterotophs photoatutotrphs bacteria Question 10 2 pts Which domain of life do protozoans and algae belong? Bacteria Protist Eukarya Prokaryotes Question 11 2 pts Which of the following pairs of protists and their ecological roles are correctly matched? euglenozoans-primarily mixotrophic dinoflagellates-parasites of plants entamoebas-free-living soil organisms apicomplexans-parasites of animals Question 12 2 pts All protists are unicellular symbionts mixotrophic eukaryotic Question 13 2 pts Biologists think that endosymbiosis gave rise to mitochondria before plastids partly because the products of photosynthesis could not be metabolized without mitochondrial enzymes. mitochondrial DNA is less similar to prokaryotic DNA than is plastid DNA. all eukaryotes have mitochondria (or their remnants), whereas many eukaryotes do not have plastids. without mitochondrial CO2 production, photosynthesis could not occur. Question 14 2 pts Name the genus. O Spirogyra Euglena Paramecium Amoeba Which domain do protozoans & algae belong? Protista Eukarya Viruses Bacteria Question 16 2 pts Which traits are not true about these organisms? WHAT ARE PROTISTS? dy.com single celled colonial photosynthetic autotroph flagellated eukaryote parasitic protozoa Question 17 2 pts Name the genus. WHAT ARE PROTISTS? Idy.com Euglena Paramecium Spirogyra Volvox Question 18 2 pts Which is false about these organisms? FINDING AND SEEING PROTISTS no study.com O photosynthetic stramenopiles diatoms o heterotrophs Question 19 2 pts Which plant group does NOT produce vascular tissues? Cone-bearing plants Ferns Mosses Flowering plants Question 20 2 pts Alternation of generation in plants implies that adult gametophytes become parasitic to adult sporophytes among seed plants diploid generation gives rise to haploid generation and vice versa sperm & egg fuse to produce immature sporophytes within protective parental reproductive tissues spores develop into mature gametophytes only after dispersal into suitable sites for germination Question 21 2 pts An advantage of “flower” over “cone” is more efficient pollination produce sperm & egg directly less expensive Question 22 2 pts Liverworts, hornworts, and mosses are grouped together as bryophytes. Besides not having vascular tissue, what do they all have in common? They are heterosporous. They are all wind pollinated. They can reproduce asexually by producing pollen. They require water for reproduction. Question 23 2 pts In addition to seeds, which of the following characteristics is unique to the seed-producing plants? megaphylls lignin present in cell walls pollen sporopollenin Question 24 2 pts Which of these plants dominate the diverse landscape of the world today? O Monilophytes Bryophytes Anthopytes (Angiosperms) Coniferophytes (Gymnosperms) Question 25 2 pts Which phylum does this organism belong? Anthophyta (Angiosperm) O Monilophyta Bryophyta O Coniferophyta (Gymnosperm) Question 26 2 pts Which phylum do these organisms belong? Coniferophyta Monilophyta Eukarya Plantae (Embryophyta) Question 27 2 pts The cells at this stage in the plant’s life cycle are haploid diploid parasitic to parents triploid Question 28 2 pts Which is not true about these structures? produce female spores within their ovules diploid offspring of the pine tree female pine cones gets pollinated Question 29 2 pts type of reproduction is advantageous under favorable and stable environments. Asexual Sexual Question 30 2 pts Which plant structure is the direct offspring of the tree (next generation)? seed flower leaves spores Question 31 2 pts Which is an adaptation to enhance seed dispersal? Plants producing nutritious nectar fleshy edible fruits large showy petals attractive odor Question 32 2 pts Which is an adaptation to enhance seed dispersal? Plants producing attractive odor nutritious nectar O large showy petals fleshy edible fruits Question 33 2 pts In plants, the adult gametophyte produces the cones or flowers seed male & female spores sperm & egg Question 34 2 pts These structures produce & release egg sperm polar nuclei male spore (pollen grain) Question 35 2 pts Identify the magnified structures. sperm cells pollen grains ovules Question 36 2 pts Identify. ovary petals anther sepals Question 37 2 pts These structures are female gametophytes sporophytes male gametophytes Question 41 2 pts Which plant tissue is responsible for transport of sugars and other organic substances? xylem ground epidermal O phloem Question 42 2 pts Seeds avoid germinating when conditions are unfavorable by being dormant. True False Question 43 2 pts Identify the structure at the tip of the pointer. young eudicot stem old monocot stem young monocot stem O old eudicot stem Question 44 2 pts Identify the cross section. WARD’S eudicot stem O eudicot root monocot root monocot stem Question 45 2 pts Identify the structure at the tip of the pointer. WARD’S cortex epidermis endodermis pith Question 46 2 pts Identify the structure at the tip of the pointer. vein stomate between guard cells O upper epidermis with cuticle Question 51 2 pts Identify. hypocotyl epicotyl cotyledon seed coat endosperm Question 52 2 pts Which of the following processes demonstrates phototropism? seed germination under bright light flowering in spring bending towards light etiolation in dim light Question 53 2 pts Plant growth response to mechanical stimulation is referred to as O photoperiodism thigmotropism phototropism O geotropism Question 54 2 pts Which material is not a soil component? parent material (rock) decaying organic matter community of soil microbes weathered rocks Question 55 2 pts Which is one of the essential micronutrients (trace elements) plants need to grow? phosphorus oxygen magnesium nitrogen iron Question 56 2 pts Which treatment would enhance the level of the Pfr form of the phytochrome? exposure to red light long dark period exposure to far-red light bright light immediately followed by dim light Question 57 2 pts What environmental condition triggers de-etiolation? darkness bright light shade additional fertilizers Question 58 2 pts How is a corn seedling able to bend towards one side? Hormone auxin is sent to deliver a message to cells at the base of the stem to slow down cell division on the top of the stem to divide rapidly on shaded side of stem to elongate on illuminated side of stem to shorten Question 59 2 pts Plant growth response (that results in bending) to light is referred to as photoperiodism photosynthesis phototropism Question 60 2 pts Where was light located based on the growth of the seedlings in the photo below? North West East ته مانده تا South West East North South Question 38 2 pts Which is a trait of eudicot plants? parallel veins in leaves fibrous roots vascular bundles form a ring in stem flower parts (petals) in 3s Question 39 2 pts Primary growth in plants involve which type of growth? increase in root length & elongating the shoot increase in root length O elongating the shoot O O widening the root & stem Question 40 2 pts The shoot of a plant grows by adding new stems and new leaves. True False Question 47 2 pts These patterns in seedling growth demonstrates winday geotropism (gravitropism) thigmotropism etiolation O phototropism Question 48 2 pts An increase in the density of soaked seeds implies that the seeds are absorbing water causing them to become heavier and extremely swollen photosynthesizing efficiently taking in water faster than they are swelling, forcing seed coat to break open. Question 49 2 pts Identify. cotyledon seed coat embryo endosperm Question 50 2 pts The dark areas in corn & bean seeds after adding iodine are the seeds’ seed coat endosperm & cotyledon root O epicotyl & hypocotyl Question 61 5 pts Acinetobacter baumannii can cause infections in the blood, urinary tract, and lungs (pneumonia), or in wounds in other parts of the body. This bacteria has become resistant to various antibiotics used to kill this bacteria. Please explain how Acinetobacter baumannii can acquire new genes. Edit View Insert Format Tools Table 12pt v Paragraph v Β Ι Ο Av Av TP v : р O words < Question 62 5 pts Use concepts we learned about serial endosymbiosis to explain how basal Eukaryotes like Euglena & Dinoflagellates can have both plant-like & animal-like traits. Edit View Insert Format Tools Table 12pt v Paragraph v В І U A v Av Tv : p. O words Question 63 5 pts Describe transpiration in plants. Name one way transpiration benefits plants and one way transpiration harms plants. Edit View Insert Format Tools Table 12pt v Paragraph v В І A AVT? : р O words Question 64 5 pts Answer both questions briefly. What advantage do plants get by producing bright colorful petals, attractive scent & tasty nectar? What is the adaptive significance of phototropism in plants? Edit View Insert Format Tools Table 12pt v Paragraph v | B B I U Aror T²v Tev : p р O words < Question 65 5 pts Describe 2 specific physical or physiological responses to stress in plants. Provide details in one complete paragraph. Edit View Insert Format Tools Table 12pt Paragraph v Β Ι Ο Αν T²v : р O words < Question 66 5 pts Select one question to answer: 1. Cite at least four examples of structural and functional diversity among protists. 2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in all organisms. A key feature in the life cycle of plants is the alternation of multicellular haploid and diploid generations. Outline the Life cycle of a moss, or fern. 3. Describe how roots and shoots grow in a plant. 4. Natural selection has led to changes in the architecture of plants that enable them to photosynthesize more efficiently in the ecological niches they occupy. In a paragraph, explain how shoot and root architecture enhances photosynthesis. Edit View Insert Format Tools Table 12pt v Paragraph v B I U Αν av T²v : :

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