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Fundamentals of Qualitative Research Administration Theory and Behavior Essay
FUNDAMENTALS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PUB 527 Pub 527 – Spring 2020 Sarah Britto, Ph.D. CLASS SURVEY https://forms.gle/kgWVo8Hh9G4cxR6TA Pub 527 – Spring 2020 Sarah Britto, Ph.D. Hope to Get out of Research Methods Source: CJA 339 Intro Survey conducted on August 26, 2019 in class. Pub 527 – Spring 2020 Sarah Britto, Ph.D. Concerns about Research Methods Class Pub 527 – Spring 2020 Sarah Britto, Ph.D. Science 1) A set of logical, systematic, documented methods for investigating Nature and natural processes. 2) The knowledge produced by these processes. Image Sources: Brian Green, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ash_Tree_-_geograph.org.uk_-_590710.jpg AllyUnion, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Science-symbol-2.svg Pub 527 – Spring 2020 Sarah Britto, Ph.D. Social Science 1) The use of scientific methods to investigate individuals, societies, and social processes. 2) The knowledge produced by these investigations. Image Source: Ingo Joseph, https://www.pexels.com/photo/people-crowd-walking-9816/ Futurebird, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Crowd_in_street.jpg Pub 527 – Spring 2020 Sarah Britto, Ph.D. Why Science often works better than other ways of knowing. ■ Overgeneralization ■ Selective Observation ■ Illogical Reasoning ■ Resistance to Change Image Source: Free Icon Library, https://icon-library.net/icon/freedom-of-speech-icon-16.html Pub 527 – Spring 2020 Sarah Britto, Ph.D. Goals of Science 1) Theory 2) Understanding 3) Knowledge/explanation 4) Prediction 5) Control Pub 527 – Spring 2020 Sarah Britto, Ph.D. Science is … ■ Empirical ■ Rational/logical/ systematic ■ Falsifiable ■ Skeptical ■ Parsimonious ■ Probabilistic ■ Public ■ Self-correcting ■ Value Free Image Source: Understanding Science, https://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/0_0_0/whatisscience_04 Pub 527 – Spring 2020 Sarah Britto, Ph.D. Types of Research 1. Descriptive Research 2. Exploratory Research 3. Explanatory Research 4. Evaluation Research Pub 527 – Spring 2020 Sarah Britto, Ph.D. The Research Wheel as a Roadmap to Research Methods Pub 527 – Spring 2020 Sarah Britto, Ph.D. Source: Bachman, R. & Schutt, R. (2014). The Practice of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publishing. Pub 527 – Spring 2020 Sarah Britto, Ph.D. Theory Testing Theory Induction Empirical Generaliz-ation Deduction The Scientific Method Data Analysis Theory Building Pub 527 – Spring 2020 Hypothesis Research Design Data Collection Sarah Britto, Ph.D. Deductive – Theory Testing Steps 1) Theory 2) Conceptualization 3) Hypothesis Formation 4) Research Design 5) Data Collection Pub 527 – Spring 2020 Sarah Britto, Ph.D. Theory An attempt to classify and organize events, to explain ■ causes of events to predict the direction of future the events, and to understand why and how these events occur (Turner). ■ Patterns ■ Framework ■ Interpret larger meaning Pub 527 – Spring 2020 Sarah Britto, Ph.D. Conceptualization/Problem Formation ■ What is it that you want to study? ■ What do you want to know about this topic? Pub 527 – Spring 2020 Sarah Britto, Ph.D. Building Blocks ■ Concept ■ Operationalization ■ Variable ■ Hypothesis ■ Unit of Analysis Image Source: Kenji Yamomoto, https://www.flickr.com/photos/kenjiys/3173014217 Pub 527 – Spring 2020 Sarah Britto, Ph.D. Research Design ■ Definition of the problem ■ Plan ■ Set of decisions Image Source: Mehedi Hassan, https://www.thurrott.com/google/207499/google-maps-expands-the-ability-to-see-speed-cameras Pub 527 – Spring 2020 Sarah Britto, Ph.D. Data Collection ■ Empirical Observations – Qualitative Methods Include ■ Semi-Structured Interviews ■ Focus Groups ■ Ethnographic Research ■ Program Evaluation ■ Action Research ■ Content Analysis ■ Unobtrusive Measures ■ Historical Research Pub 527 – Spring 2020 Sarah Britto, Ph.D. Inductive – Theory Building Steps 1) Data Collection 2) Data Analysis 3) Empirical Generalization 4) Induction 5) Theory Pub 527 – Spring 2020 Sarah Britto, Ph.D. What to do with the data? ■ Data Analysis ■ Empirical Generalization ■ Induction ■ Theory Pub 527 – Spring 2020 Sarah Britto, Ph.D. How is science relevant to Criminal Justice and Criminology? ■ Theory ■ Practice Pub 527 – Spring 2020 Sarah Britto, Ph.D. Scientific Revolutions ■ Paradigm ■ Paradigm Shifts Pub 527 – Spring 2020 Sarah Britto, Ph.D. Independent Project Choose any option to fulfill the requirements for your Original Research Paper – the options are designed so that you will be able to make a choice that best fits your strengths and the limitations that you may be facing given the current COVID-19 pandemic. All of the options end with an approximately 7 – 10 page paper. Option 1 is an individual project – the one I had originally designed for the entire class. PART 3 Data Analysis & Findings For this assignment you will analyze the data that you collected and present your findings. The findings section will discuss the major themes and sub-themes that emerged during your data analysis. You will present the results of the data analysis (i.e. quotes) and describe how these findings contribute to the understanding of the research topic you selected. 1 Running head: ADMINISTRATION THEORY AND BEHAVIOR Name: HUIQI GUAN Date:2020/04/13 2 ADMINISTRATION THEORY AND BEHAVIOR Research Question & Methodology Research question: What is the impact of motivation on employee performance in the public education sector? Study population: The public sector comprises of agencies and organizations run by governments tasked with meeting specified needs of the citizens. The public sector in the US is divided into three tiers, which corresponds to the level of governments running the area: federal, state and local government. The public sector under the state and local governments is responsible for provision and coordination of the departments of education, housing and welfare, public safety, transportation and environmental services. Federal public sector employees may be involved in the provision of services afore-mentioned, in addition to international relations, defence and communication services. Therefore the public sector offers vast employment opportunities which a filled in by approximately 22.65 million employees by November 2019, according to the Federal Reserve Bank of St Louis (2020). All of the employees working in the education departments are eligible to voluntarily participate in the study, except for employees in administrative positions. Sampling strategy: The study population is immense, and so sampling is essential to provide a sample of fewer respondents from which inferences will be drawn for the study. A random sampling technique will be employed to ensure that all eligible respondents have equal probabilities in being selected for the study. The two-stage cluster random sampling technique will be used, dividing the respondents into equally-numbered groups. From each group, a subsample will be selected by 3 ADMINISTRATION THEORY AND BEHAVIOR simple random to obtain the final sample that will participate in the study. The cluster sampling technique will be employed to save on the travel and administrative costs and to improve the feasibility of the study with a large study population. Qualitative method: A semi-structured interview method would be applied to collect data from the respondents through an online platform. The interview guide used will comprise a series of open-ended questions, which is flexible to allow the respondent to offer detailed responses, expressing their thoughts, beliefs and feelings as about the research topic. This method provides the advantages of collecting more in-depth information from the respondents, including enabling the researcher to explore the reasons behind the answer offered by the respondents. Moreover, respondents are accorded time to open up on sensitive issues. Motivation and factors affecting employee motivation are intricate and very personal, and so the method enables the researcher to delve into these details affecting each of the respondents. It also offers some control to the researcher, to guide the interview by allowing the researcher to prepare questions in advance to keep the respondents on topic. The data collected should only pertain to matters affecting employee motivation and productivity. Ethical issues: The research question is a particularly sensitive topic, for which anonymity and confidentiality of the data are of utmost importance. However, the interviews and other research processes, such as data storage and analysis, are conducted on online platforms which could be vulnerable to unauthorized access and utilization. The confidentiality and privacy of the respondents will be upheld, with the files on the study will be stored in an authorized-only information database, for 4 ADMINISTRATION THEORY AND BEHAVIOR which password security will be necessary to allow access. When dissemination and sharing of the information are authorized, the transmitted file formats will be encrypted with the users supplied with decryption keys to open. The researcher is also unable to secure the physical environment and the privacy of the conversation in online interviews. The respondent may be affected by intrusions and interruptions by other people within their surroundings, or even colleagues who could lead to non-verbal cues that could be misinterpreted by the researcher. The reliability of the data could be influenced by persons within the surroundings of the interviewee. The interviews will thence be conducted with participants using ear-or headphones. An assessment of the surroundings during the interview will be documented by the interviewer, to enable the reliable interpretation of cues. 5 ADMINISTRATION THEORY AND BEHAVIOR References Federal Reserve Bank of St Louis (2020). All Employees, Governent. Retrieved on April 11th, 2020 from https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/USGOVT Running Head: Administration Theory and Behaviour PART2 HUIQI GUAN 2020/4/25 1 Administration Theory and Behaviour 2 Data Collection Process The research is qualitative; therefore, the data collection techniques that will be used will involve questionnaires that will be issued to the respondents. Initially, conducting personal interviews with the selected respondents would have been the ideal technique to use since it provides more accurate responses. The researcher would h have also ensured that all the respondents answer the questions as required to avoid bias and ambiguity in the responses. However, owing to the COVID 19 pandemic, it will be impossible to conduct interviews with the respondents due to the health issues and travel restrictions. Therefore, in collecting the required data, the researcher will use surveys that will be shared with the respondents via emails. The survey will involve all the necessary questions required for the research (Sutton & Austin, 2015). Using the online responses, the researcher will be able to secure the required data promptly. There is a need to ensure that all the respondents receive the questionnaires and provide the responses on time (Sutton & Austin, 2015). On receiving the required responses, the researcher will review all the answers given by the respondents. Those responses that fail to meet the required standards will be eliminated for use in the research. The questionnaires will be analyzed to extract the required data. The researcher will use tools such as SPSS and Excel to analyze the collected data (Sutton & Austin, 2015). The responses will be categorized depending on the similar issues identified by the researcher. Since the research involved open-ended questions, the researcher will analyze all the responses and classify them based on similarities. The data gathered will mostly focus on the research questions by evaluating factors that impact the motivation of employees in the public sector in the United States. The data will later be interpreted and summarized by the use of charts, graphs, and other data representation techniques. Administration Theory and Behaviour 3 Reference Sutton, J., & Austin, Z. (2015). Qualitative Research: Data Collection, Analysis, and Management. The Canadian 10.4212/cjhp.v68i3.1456 Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 68(3). Doi: …
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