history of medicine questions

Hi. These are the questions that I need answers for. All of the questions should be answered using the sources provided. Thanks!

  1. Before the discovery of cholera’s pathogen by Robert Koch, how did John Snow explain the pathology of cholera in “The Principles on Which the Treatment of Cholera Should Be Based”? What were the contemporary oppositions regarding the etiology of cholera and its treatment against Snow’s finding?
  2. In Clendening’s “XXVII: Smallpox,” why would the contemporaries consider vaccination to be more superior to inoculation? In your opinion, what convinced Lady Mary Montagu the most to adopt inoculation on her child? Were her reasons scientific? Why or why not? In Edward Jenner’s account, how was Variolae Vaccinae transmitted? Can you find something in common among the patients in Jenner’s cases, in terms of their social background? Compare and contrast the experiments that Jenner and Benjamin Waterhouse conducted respectively. What were the similarities and differences between their experiments?
  3. What is the main argument in Leung’s “Variolation and Vaccination in Late Imperial China, ca. 1570-1911”? According to the author, how did the Chinese practitioners preserved or appropriate traditional rituals in Chinese medicine, when practicing vaccination? What were the reasons facilitated the rapid acceptance of vaccination by the Chinese society, especially in Southern China? Based on the evidence and argument, which line of scholarship do you think this article fit into?

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