How Can Climate Change Affect Forest Pests

How can climate change affect forest pests? (select all that apply)

Question options:

1) Increased temperature leads to longer development times, making pest more vulnerable to natural enemy attacks

2) Insect pests are not very vulnerable to changes in climate

3) Disruption of cold-weather dormancy

4) Increase of nitrogen-based defense chemicals in the tree and therefore reducing the trees susceptibility to pests

5) Higher winter survival rate

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