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Introduction to Sociology in Our Times Exam
Joe has decided to join a monastery. At this monastery, he will have to maintain silence for eight hours a day, and he will have to fast on a regular basis. In this case, Joe will experience __________.
- voluntary resocialization
- involuntary resocialization
- forced resocialization
- anticipatory resocialization
People sleep to maintain their biological needs. But the fact that most people gradually learn to sleep on beds or mats exemplifies how:
- reflexes are learned behaviors common to all members of a species.
- culture channels the expression of human reflexes.
- reflexes determine how people behave in human societies.
- nature, not nurture, accounts for virtually all patterns of human behavior.
Which of the following is the BEST illustration of the characterization of roles as relational?
- it is not clear at what age children should no longer be expected to depend on their parents for economic support.
- in times of rapid social change, roles for various positions become somewhat unclear.
- one’s role performance may not fit the role expectations for any particular status.
In the context of industrial societies, when individuals who work on specialized, interdependent tasks are bound together by mutual dependence and practical considerations rather than by morality or shared values, they are said to have __________.
- organic solidarity
- mechanical solidarity
- collective solidarity
- specialized solidarity
- Emile Durkheim refused to accept that suicide is merely a(n) __________.
- personal trouble
- interdependence issue
- public issue
- societal dysfunction
According to the symbolic interactionist perspective on socialization, four components make up our self-concept. Which of the following components is illustrated by the statement “I am good at soccer”?
- the physical self
- the psychological self
- the active self
- the social self
Jeffrey Dahmer was convicted of murder and sentenced to life in prison. He was also a cannibal. In this situation, the act of murder can be described as violation of __________, while cannibalism can be described as violation of __________.
- values; beliefs
- folkways; mores
- mores; taboos
- mores; folkways
All jobs place some burden on our feelings; however, the term emotional labor refers only to jobs that __________.
- involve working with children and the elderly
- require personal contact with the public or promote a particular state of mind
- pertain to social work or mental health
- involve entertaining an audience
Which of the following is an example of cultural lag?
- the lack of acceptance of genetically engineered foods by people who believe that such foods may lead to health and environmental problems.
- the use of radar to determine and document the speed of drivers on a major highway.
- an increase in the use of Facebook among people over the age of 50 to find former high school and college classmates.
- a lack of electronic versions of older novels, biographies, and other published works.
In the context of how culture is essential for humans, which of the following is a similarity between reflexes and drives?
- the presence of both these characteristics constitutes nurture, which is the social environment of humans.
- both are learned behaviors common to all members of a species.
- both are exclusive determinants of how people will behave in human societies.
- the expression of both these characteristics is channeled by culture.
The basis for Durkheim’s theory of society is the principle that _____________.
- people are the products of their social environments
- the evolution of society is based on the concept of “survival of the fittest”
- society consists of the dual processes of social statics and social dynamics
- conflict between different economic classes is necessary to produce social change
Social structure consists of all of these, EXCEPT:
- groups and organizations
- status and roles
__________ are rewards for appropriate behavior or penalties for inappropriate behavior.
Nonhuman animals cannot use symbols to transmit the complex aspects of their culture to their offspring because __________.
- nonhuman animals use symbols with fixed meanings and thus cannot manipulate these symbols to express abstract concepts and rules
- most nonhuman animals are physically endowed with the vocal apparatus needed to form the consonants required for oral language and thus do not need to use symbols
- no species of nonhuman animals knows how to use elements of American Sign Language
- using symbols is solely a human characteristic and symbols are therefore not employed by nonhuman species for communication
Carlos is a freshman at the local college. As a student, he is feeling pressure. He wants to party like the rest of his fraternity brothers, but at the same time, he wants to maintain his 4.0 grade point average. Sociologists would say that Carlos is experiencing __________.
- role conflict
- role incompatibility
- role reversal
- role strain
- Which of the following is a difference between a fashion and a fad?
- A fashion is longer lasting than a fad.
- A fad is more widespread than a fashion.
- A fashion is a form of popular culture, whereas a fad is a form of high culture.
- A fad is primarily followed by the dominant class, whereas a fashion is primarily followed by the subordinate classes.
People in all societies believe in the social institution of religion. As a result, the general practices related to religion are present in all cultures. In this context, religion is an example of __________.
- a sanction
- material culture
- a cultural universal
- a norm
Tanvi, a 13-year-old girl, prefers playing rough sports to playing house with dolls. She also prefers short hair and baggy trousers to long hair and pink dresses preferred by most of the girls her age. Despite wanting to play with boys of her age and dress like them, Tanvi continues to behave and dress like other girls because she fears that her peers will demean her and make fun of her if she does otherwise. This scenario exemplifies the concept of __________.
- cultural relativism
- reciprocal socialization
- peer pressure
A __________ is a set of logically interrelated statements that attempts to describe, explain, and (occasionally) predict social events.
When Derek was an infant, his parents taught him that sharing toys with others is ethical. As Derek grew older, they taught him the correct way to address others and the manners that are socially acceptable. When Derek began going to school, he learned various other customs and behaviors from his peers and teachers. The social interaction that occurred during these years helped Derek acquire a self-identity and learn practices that are crucial for survival in society. This scenario illustrates the concept of __________.
- social immigration
- cultural relativism
All human beings create shelter to protect themselves from the weather and to give themselves privacy. This exemplifies how __________.
- both material and nonmaterial cultures advance at the same pace in a society
- the abstract creations of society influence human behavior
- material culture acts as a buffer against the environment
- nonmaterial culture is essential for human survival
According to French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, members of the upper class in a society must be trained to appreciate and participate in high culture, which includes activities such as opera, ballet, and live theater. Once these members acquire these abilities, they possess __________, which is symbolic of being a member of the upper class and is typically not acquired by members of the lower classes.
- cultural anomaly
- cultural capital
- cultural integration
- cultural imperialism
Automobiles provide transportation and independence. They also cause air pollution and contribute to global warming. Sociologist Robert K. Merton would consider these negative impacts the __________ of automobiles.
- overt functions
- manifest functions
During a classical music performance, a concertgoer talks loudly to the person sitting next to her. A man in another seat turns around, frowns at her, and says “Shh.” This illustrates a __________.
- negative informal norm
- positive formal sanction
- negative informal sanction
- prescriptive informal norm
Mikayla is told repeatedly that she is not a very good athlete. Eventually, she comes to believe it, puts in little effort in gym class, and receives a poor grade. This scenario is an illustration of __________.
- a self-fulfilling prophecy
- civil inattention
- survival of the fittest
- false consciousness
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