Oprah Winfrey Leadership Academy for Girls Essay

Oprah Winfrey Leadership Academy for Girls Essay

Write from 4 to 5 pages about the case study: Oprah Winfrey’s Dream School for Impoverished Girls: An Inspired Model or a Misguided One?

NGOs and Private Philanthropy

Assignment: Oprah Winfrey is considered one of the most generous celebrities when it comes to philanthropy. The case study is about her efforts to educate girls in South Africa as an important step in the eradication of poverty there.She has contributed millions of her own dollars, and she has set up a U.S. charitable organization called the Oprah Winfrey Leadership Academy Foundation to accept tax deductible donations for the cause.Her efforts have not been without controversy, but neither have those of Bill Gates, George Soros, or others whose global giving has been extraordinary.Let’s think for ourselves.Questions to consider: Are these criticisms fair? Did the assigned readings offer any helpful insights? What do you think of the Leadership Academy? If you were a generous philanthropist and wanted to find solutions to poverty outside the U.S. (or even inside!), how would you do it?If you were managing an NGO receiving such generous funds, what techniques would you use to relate to such a powerful donor?

 

philanthrocapitaGuidance for Case Analyses and Final Paper PUAD 636 NGO Policy and Management General Principles The use of case studies has two purposes. The first is to show that we’re not just dealing with abstract concepts that have no relationship to real life. The second is to strengthen your ability to use the resources of scholars and experienced practitioners to understand the policies and other forces that influence the leadership and management of nongovernmental organizations. Whether the case studies have been formally created by scholars or informally assembled as a collection of media articles, they will not contain all the information you would probably like. But by referring to the other readings, you will be able to deduce the issues at play. That’s part of the fun! Case study analysis (the 4-5 page paper) Each student will be assigned a case to analyze and submit directly to the instructor as an email attachment. The analysis will be graded. Here is a suggested approach for a case analysis. It is not necessary to follow this outline to the letter, but if you are feeling uncertain about what’s expected, it will help you organize your thoughts: • State the situation presented by the case in one or two sentences, or a few more sentences if, in your judgment, you need to set the stage in more detail. Try to avoid reciting a chronology of events. Stand back from the details and ask yourself, “What is the overall situation here?” • Determine how the case illustrates the topic we’re going to be discussing. For example, if we’re talking about the role of government funds or private philanthropy, what do we learn about that from the cases represented by CARE USA or Oprah Winfrey’s Dream School for Impoverished Girls? How do these case studies affirm or contradict what the scholars tell us about the influence of donors on the policies and practices of nongovernmental organizations? • Consider all the readings to date and how they help you interpret the situation in the case study. • If possible or helpful, compare the situation described in the case with what appears to be the current situation (drawn usually from information on the organization’s website). In a case where the organization faced severe problems, you will usually be able to see (or deduce) the course correction it made. • If the case presents management problems, make recommendations and support your recommendations with principles or factual information from the readings. • Feel free to share any other insights you might have, whether about the case or from your own experience. Write from 4 to 5 pages about the case study: Oprah Winfrey’s Dream School for Impoverished Girls: An Inspired Model or a Misguided One? NGOs and Private Philanthropy Assignment: Oprah Winfrey is considered one of the most generous celebrities when it comes to philanthropy. The case study is about her efforts to educate girls in South Africa as an important step in the eradication of poverty there. She has contributed millions of her own dollars, and she has set up a U.S. charitable organization called the Oprah Winfrey Leadership Academy Foundation to accept tax deductible donations for the cause. Her efforts have not been without controversy, but neither have those of Bill Gates, George Soros, or others whose global giving has been extraordinary. Let’s think for ourselves. Questions to consider: Are these criticisms fair? Did the assigned readings offer any helpful insights? What do you think of the Leadership Academy? If you were a generous philanthropist and wanted to find solutions to poverty outside the U.S. (or even inside!), how would you do it? If you were managing an NGO receiving such generous funds, what techniques would you use to relate to such a powerful donor? Required readings Buffett, Peter, “The Charitable Industrial Complex,” New York Times, July 26, 2013. “Philanthrocapitalism: Savior or Emperor?” Transcript of a discussion at the Hudson Institute’s Bradley Center for Philanthropy and Civic Renewal, featuring Matthew Bishop, Michael Edwards and Dennis Whittle about the pros and cons of relying on business solutions and/or philanthropy in development strategy, April 9, 2009. “Oprah Winfrey’s Leadership Academy: A Philanthrocapitalistic Mission,” by Emily Doan. This informative site was created by students from the University of Oklahoma’s Honors College for a course called “Africa and the ‘Urge to Help’: Humanitarianism in Historical Perspective”: http://theurgetohelp.com/articles/oprah-winfreys-leadership-academy-a-philanthrocapitalisticmission/ The reading list 1. Case study: Oprah Winfrey’s Dream School for Impoverished Girls Oprah Winfrey’s Dream School for Impoverished Girls: An Inspired Model or a Misguided One? PDF 2. Oprah Winfrey’s Leadership Academy for Girls (OWLAG) https://owlag.co.za/ 3. The Charitable Industrial Complex by Peter Buffett Word document 4. Philanthrocapitalism: Savior or Emperor? Transcript of a discussion at the Hudson Institute PDF 5. Oprah Winfrey’s Leadership Academy: A Philanthrocapitalistic Mission by Emily Doan http://theurgetohelp.com/articles/oprah-winfreys-leadership-academy-aphilanthrocapitalistic-mission/ 6. CAF America’s NGO Global Connect, free resources for international grantmaking https://ngoglobalconnect.org/about/ For the exclusive use of A. Alneel, 2020. HKS129 Case Number 1930.0 An Inspired Model… or a Misguided One? Oprah Winfrey’s Dream School for Impoverished South African Girls In a country where violence against females is epidemic, where many girls under the age of 10 have already been raped, where the estimate for HIV infection in children and adults is one in eight, and more than 36 percent of black women are unemployed, often illiterate, and subsisting in tin shanties, a chance like this for a young African girl is akin to suddenly finding yourself on a rocket to the moon. “Building a Dream,” O, The Oprah Magazine, January 01, 2006 1 Introduction Oprah Winfrey was already well-established as a generous philanthropist by December 2000 when she promised the recently-retired Nelson Mandela, first president of post-Apartheid South Africa and 2 Winfrey’s “greatest living hero,” that she would build his country a top notch boarding school for disadvantaged girls. For Winfrey, one of the most successful talk show hosts and producers in television history, the creation of the school was deeply personal, combining two passionate interests. The first was to use the power of education to help impoverished young girls with exceptional promise—girls much like herself as a child—to realize their potential and transform their lives. The second was to contribute to the success of post-Apartheid South Africa. From the ranks of the girls in her school, Winfrey hoped, would one day emerge strong new leaders, in all walks of life, to shape what she called “the country of new beginnings.” 3 To that end, Winfrey set out to build the Oprah Winfrey Leadership Academy for Girls, a $40 million dream school—spacious, thoughtfully-designed, and elegantly-appointed, with excellent teachers, small classes, modern facilities, and extensive grounds. Eventually, the school would serve 450 girls, in 1 http://www.Winfrey.com/entertainment/Building-a-Dream/, retrieved Jan. 29, 2010. “The Leadership Academy Opens,” slide show and text, O, The Oprah Magazine, Jan. 1, 2006. http://www.oprah.com/world/The-Leadership-Academy-Opens/slide_number/4#slide, retrieved Feb. 8, 2010. Nelson Mandela was South Africa’s first democratically elected, post-Apartheid president. He served from 1994 to 1999. From 1948 to 1994, the country had been governed under a system of mandated racial segregation which denied power to the black majority. 3 “Building a Dream,” O, The Oprah Magazine, Jan. 1, 2006. http://www.Winfrey.com/entertainment/Building-aDream/, retrieved Jan. 29, 2010. 2 ________________________________________________________________________________________________ This case was based on a research paper, “Is Development in the Details? The Oprah Winfrey Leadership Academy— South Africa,” 2009, by Claire Applegarth, Laura Bacon, Alix Edwards, Kate Kennedy, Stella Schieffer, and Lin Yang. The paper was written for Stephen Peterson, Lecturer in Public Policy and Senior Fellow in development at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government. It was adapted for use as a teaching case by Pamela Varley of the Kennedy School Case Program. HKS cases are developed solely as the basis for class discussion. Cases are not intended to serve as endorsements, sources of primary data, or illustrations of effective or ineffective management. Copyright © 2010 President and Fellows of Harvard College. No part of this publication may be reproduced, revised, translated, stored in a retrieval system, used in a spreadsheet, or transmitted in any form or by any means without the express written consent of the Case Program. For orders and copyright permission information, please visit our website at caseweb.hks.harvard.edu or send a written request to Case Program, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 79 John F. Kennedy Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. This document is authorized for use only by Asma Alneel in PUAD 636 NGO Policy and Management Fall 2020 taught by Char Mollison, George Mason University from Aug 2020 to Jan 2021. For the exclusive use of A. Alneel, 2020. grades 7 through 12, but Winfrey planned to start small and ramp up slowly. In January 2007, the academy opened its doors to a charter group of 152 seventh and eighth graders in the village of Henley-on-Klip, about forty miles south of Johannesburg. In each of the next four years, the school would expand by one grade level. Ultimately, Winfrey hoped the academy would prove a model that others would study and replicate. In South Africa and elsewhere, the opening of the extraordinary school garnered much attention and praise, but also drew significant criticism. Some of the critics were appalled at using so much money to create so posh a facility for so few children, when so many were in desperate need. Others chided Winfrey for failing to take a community-based approach, and for separating the children from their homes and communities. Winfrey, confident in her model, stayed the course. Birth of a Dream Winfrey’s identification with the impoverished young teenagers of South Africa, and her faith in the transformative power of education, were a direct product of her own life experience. Born to an unwed couple in Mississippi in 1954, Winfrey had experienced poverty, sexual assault, homelessness, teen pregnancy, and child birth by the time she was 14. (Her baby died in infancy.) But she also received strong encouragement to read, learn, and recite publicly—from her grandmother, as a young child, and later from her father, as a teenager. In Nashville, Tennessee, under his guidance, she became a high school honors student, showing particular aptitude for speech and oratory, and won a full scholarship to Tennessee State University. Her story was a classic rags-to-riches saga. Winfrey began her broadcasting career while still in high school. By the age of nineteen, she had landed a job as a local news anchor in Nashville. By 1986, Winfrey was hosting her own national television show. Over the years, she took on additional media ventures. In 2003, she became the first African-American woman to make Forbes magazine’s billionaires’ list. 4 Early on, Winfrey established a reputation among celebrities for exceptional generosity to charitable causes, but by the late 1990s and early 2000s, she was searching for a way to become more personally involved. “When I first started making a lot of money, I really became frustrated with the fact that all I did was write check after check to this or that charity without really feeling like it was a part of me,” she told Newsweek in 2007. 5 If Winfrey’s decision to build a girls school was personal, however, it was also strategic, and coincided with a growing international consensus about the high value of girls’ education as a tool for development. Studies showed that when a nation’s girls were not educated, the country experienced a 6 slower rate of economic growth, and higher rates of fertility, child mortality and malnutrition. Kofi Annan, 4 “Oprah Winfrey’s Impact Felt Around the World,” Sunday Times (South Africa), Nov. 25, 2009. “Oprah Goes to School,” by Allison Samuels, Newsweek, Jan. 8, 2007. 6 “The Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal on Gender Equity,” by Dina Abu-Ghaida & Stephen Klasen, Munich Discussion Paper No. 2003-1, Department of Economics, University of Munich, November 2002. 5 HKS Case Program 2 of 11 Case Number 1930.0 This document is authorized for use only by Asma Alneel in PUAD 636 NGO Policy and Management Fall 2020 taught by Char Mollison, George Mason University from Aug 2020 to Jan 2021. For the exclusive use of A. Alneel, 2020. former United Nations Secretary-General, and Lawrence Summers, former World Bank Chief Economist, both publicly called for the increased education of girls in developing countries, proclaiming that no other social investment yielded so high a return. 7 Sub-Saharan African nations had traditionally been among the worst for educational attainment, generally, and gender inequality, in particular. By comparison, South Africa’s record was better, but the aggregate statistics masked a more disturbing story. Education in South Africa Until the negotiated end to South Africa’s Apartheid system in 1994, schools had been segregated by race as a matter of government policy, and were profoundly unequal in quality. Those in rural areas and the black townships had been particularly under-resourced. According to one study, the new South African government inherited a system in which 27 percent of South Africa’s schools had no running water, 43 percent had no electricity, 80 percent had no libraries, and 78 percent had no computers. Of the schools 8 with toilets, 15 percent were not working. In addition, girls had not been guaranteed a right to education, under the old system. The new post-Apartheid South African government adopted the South African School Act in 1996, which established the goal of equal access to education for the first time, and made school attendance compulsory for children between the ages of 7 and 15. The Department of Education made its priorities the improvement of early childhood education, teacher quality, and educational access for rural and poor children. But the road was uphill. By 2004, an estimated 96 percent of children aged 7 to 13 were enrolled in primary school, and 70 percent of those aged 14 to 17 attended secondary school, according to a report by UNICEF, the United 9 Nations Children’s Fund. But schools in many poor areas were badly dysfunctional. Teachers—poorly trained, poorly motivated, and poorly supported—often arrived late, left early, or failed to show altogether. Classrooms were overcrowded. Violence, gang activity, and sexual abuse within the schools were commonplace. Many children came to school hungry. And the prevalence of HIV/AIDS was deeply disruptive to education, as to all aspects of life in South Africa. Teachers fell sick. Children fell sick. Children coped with illness and death at home. 10 In a 2010 website posting, UNICEF reported that in South Africa, “almost a million children under the age of 15 have lost their parents or caregivers to AIDS.” 11 7 “The New Class Struggle,” by C. Daniel, Financial Times Magazine, September 27, 2008. “Girls’ Education in Africa: What Do We Know about Strategies that Work?” by E. Kane, Africa Region Human Development Working Paper, The World Bank, May 2004. Washington D.C. 8 “Report of the Public Hearing on the Right to Basic Education,” South Africa Human Rights Commission, 2006, results of a study conducted between 1996 and 2000, p. 25. 9 http://www.unicef.org/southafrica/education_4718.html, retrieved Jan 29, 2010. 10 “Report of the Public Hearing on the Right to Basic Education,” South Africa Human Rights Commission, 2006. 11 http://www.unicef.org/southafrica/education_4718.html, retrieved Jan 29, 2010. HKS Case Program 3 of 11 Case Number 1930.0 This document is authorized for use only by Asma Alneel in PUAD 636 NGO Policy and Management Fall 2020 taught by Char Mollison, George Mason University from Aug 2020 to Jan 2021. For the exclusive use of A. Alneel, 2020. The Particular Problems for Girls While South African statistics did not show a marked difference between boys and girls in school attendance, this was less a reflection of gender equality than of the high drop out rate for both boys and girls, according to the South Africa Human Rights Commission. 12 Boys often dropped out to engage in antisocial or criminal activity. Girls, on the other hand, dropped out for a range of reasons. “Girls and women are accorded lower social status and find themselves under the control and authority of men,” according to UNICEF. “Girls are socialized to become home-keepers and child-bearers, placing less value on their educational attainment.” 13 And, because of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, “girls often drop out of school to look after sick family members and younger siblings.” 14 In addition, South African girls and women were both subject to high levels of violence, including sexual assault. Teenage pregnancy rates were high. At the same time, teen pregnancy was stigmatized, and pregnant teens were often forced to drop out of school. Far from being a refuge from such dangers, the schools were often part of the problem: 33 percent of the rapes of female students reported in 1996 had been perpetrated by their teachers, according to a 2002 article. 15 At an October 12-14, 2005 public hearing, the South Africa Human Rights Commission heard “accounts of teachers taking advantage of their positions of authority and coercing sex from girls. An example was given of a learner coming late and having to exchange sex with a teacher in order to be allowed onto the school premises that had been locked. A second example was of teachers exchanging food for sex from poor girl learners. 16 In addition, the commonplace lack of gender-segregated toilets, and—for many—the long walk from home to school or bus stop, provided opportunities for assault and turned school attendance into a risky proposition for many girls. 17 In response, some parents pulled their girls out of school. The Oprah Winfrey Leadership Academy In creating her academy for girls, Winfrey wanted to provide a safe haven, and a place of high quality learning, as a first order of business. She hired Joan Countryman, an African-American educator, as primary consultant in designing the school and as interim head of the school to hire staff, establish 12 “Report of the Public Hearing on the Right to Basic Education,” South Africa Human Rights Commission, 2006, p. 21. http://www.unicef.org/southafrica/education_4718.html, retrieved Jan 29, 2010. 14 http://www.unicef.org/southafrica/education_4718.html, retrieved Jan 29, 2010. 15 “Rape of Girls in South Africa,” by Rachel Jewkes, Jonathan Levin, Nolwazi Mbananga, and Debbie Bradshaw, The Lancet, Vol. 359, Issue 9303, pp. 319-320, January 26, 2002. 16 “Report of the Public Hearing on the Right to Basic Education,” South Africa Human Rights Commission, 2006, p. 22. 17 http://www.unicef.org/southafrica/education_4718.html, retrieved Jan 29, 2010. 13 HKS Case Program 4 of 11 Case Number 1930.0 This document is authorized for use only by Asma Alneel in PUAD 636 NGO Policy and Management Fall 2020 taught by Char Mollison, George Mason University from Aug 2020 to Jan 2021. For the e …