Please i need it as soon as possible. Apply the criteria on Creative Behavior to the Leader. How does the
“Choosing to Lie” box on page 178 apply? and the leader is oprah winfrey and any criteria will be ok with it. “Leadership and Organizational Behavior”
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“An Ethical Choice Choosing to Lie
Mark Twain wrote, “The wise thing is for us diligently to train ourselves to lie thoughtfully.” Not everyone agrees that lying is wrong. But we probably agree that people do lie, including each of us, to varying degrees. And most of us probably agree that if we lied less, organizations and society would be better off. So how might that be done? Research conducted by behavioral scientists suggests some steps to recovery.
Stop lying to ourselves. We lie to ourselves about how much we lie. Specifically, many studies reveal that we deem ourselves much less likely to lie than we judge others to be. At a collective level, this is impossible—everyone can’t be below above average in their propensity to lie. So step 1 is to admit the truth: We underestimate the degree to which we lie, we overestimate our morality compared to others, and we tend to engage in what Bazerman and Tenbrunsel call “moral hypocrisy”—we think we’re more moral than we are.
Trust, but verify. A recent study showed that lying is learned at a very young age. When a toy was placed out of view, an experimenter told young children not to look at the toy and went out of sight. More than 80 percent of the children looked at the toy. When asked whether they had looked, 25 percent of 2-1/2 year-olds lied, compared to 90 percent of 4 year-olds. Why do we learn to lie? Because we often get away with it. Negotiation research shows that we are more likely to lie in the future when our lies have succeeded or gone undetected in the past. Managers need to identify areas where lying is costly and find ways to shine a light on it when it occurs.
Reward honesty. “The most difficult thing is to recognize that sometimes we too are blinded by our own incentives,” writes Dan Ariely, “because we don’t see how our conflicts of interest work on us.” So if we want more honesty, we have to provide greater incentives for the truth, and more disincentives for lying and cheating.
Sources: Based on D. Ariely, The Honest Truth About Dishonesty: How We Lie to Everyone—and Especially Ourselves (New York: Harper, 2012); K. Canavan, “Even Nice People Cheat Sometimes,” The Wall Street Journal (August 8, 2012), p. 4B; M. H. Bazerman and Ann E. Tenbrunsel, Blind Spots: Why We Fail to Do What’s Right and What to Do About It (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2012); A. D. Evans and K. Lee, “Emergence of Lying in Very Young Children,” Developmental Psychology (2013); and L. Zhou Y. Sung, and D. Zhang, “Deception Performance in Online Group Negotiation and Decision Making: The Effects of Deception Experience and Deception Skill,” Group Decision and Negotiation 22 (2013), pp. 153-172.”