Question 1.1. (TCO 7) Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrig’s disease, is a
fatal disorder characterized by muscle weakness. Stumbling when walking or difficulties using a hand are typically early symptoms. Individuals with ALS lose the ability to consciously control movement, though cognitive and sensory functions generally remain unimpaired. There is currently no cure for ALS. Given the symptoms of ALS, what part of the nervous system is functioning abnormally?
Autonomic nervous system
Central nervous system
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2. (TCO 7) The human eye is an incredible organ, capable of gathering light to focus on images near and far, in bright light or dim, and with quick adjustments between these extremes. However, eyes can develop problems, such as floaters, which are small particles that interfere with the transmission of light between the lens and the retina, and bloodshot eyes, which occur when irritants, such as dust or smoke, get in the eye. Eyes can become bloodshot when irritants in the eye trigger an increased blood flow to the connective tissue covering the eye. These swollen blood vessels are located on the
3. (TCO 7) Osteoarthritis is a common result of aging, affecting persons’ ability to
catch their breath after exercise.
move their joints.
heal broken bones.
produce red blood cells.
4. (TCO 7) Which of the following can lead to deafness?
Prolonged loud noise
All of the above
5. (TCO 7) Which of the following effects could result from activation of the sympathetic nervous system?
Decreased heart rate
Stimulated digestive organs
Secretion of epinephrine
Narrowing of the bronchi
6. (TCO 6) If a person is exposed to radioactive iodine following a nuclear reactor accident, then we would expect that person to be at elevated risk for developing _____ cancer.
7. (TCO 6) If a person has just eaten a meal with lots of carbohydrates, then we would expect to see a rise in the level of glucose in the blood that would trigger a release of
8. (TCO 6) Estrogens stimulate the development of
a low-pitched voice.
9. (TCO 6) Which of the following is(are) mostly involved in a long-lasting response to stress?
10. (TCO 6) Epinephrine
decreases metabolic rate.
decreases heart rate.
increases absorption of glucose by the digestive tract.
increases breathing rate.
11. (TCO 6) Avian influenza is a viral infection that naturally occurs in wild birds with few damaging effects. However, avian influenza is highly contagious and can quickly kill domesticated birds. Some human influenza viruses are similar to the avian influenza. People infected with avian influenza develop typical flu symptoms (fever, cough, muscle aches). However, symptoms may become more severe and life-threatening. If avian influenza evolves into a form that is easily transmissible from person to person, a global pandemic of widespread human death might occur. Which of the following methods do you think would be the best way to test the effectiveness of a vaccine against avian influenza that is intended for human use?
Give the vaccine to a single mouse that has the virus, and assess whether influenza symptoms develop.
Give the vaccine to a group of mice that have the virus, and give a placebo to another group of mice that have the virus. Assess whether influenza symptoms develop in either group.
Give the vaccine to a single human who has the virus, and assess whether influenza symptoms develop.
Give the vaccine to a group of humans who have the virus, and give a placebo to another group of humans who have the virus. Assess whether influenza symptoms develop in either group.
12. (TCO 6) A new vaccine has been developed for pertussis. The initial clinical trial on 10,000 adults was divided into live vaccine (3,500), an attenuated vaccine (3,500), and a placebo group (3,000). Of the group that received the live vaccine, three individuals developed the disease, whereas the attenuated virus group had 15 individuals with the disease, and the control group had 30 people develop the disease. Which was the most effective treatment for preventing pertussis?
No treatment (placebo)
There was no difference between the 3 groups
13. (TCO 6) When the adaptive immune system improperly turns against the body’s own molecules, the result is
an autoimmune disease.
an immunodeficiency disease.
14. (TCO 6) A role of the lymphatic system is to
produce hormones related to suppressing humoral immune responses.
produce red blood cells.
15. (TCO 6) One function of antibodies is to
deactivate defensive proteins.
stimulate the production of antigens.
phagocytose invading bacteria.
clump foreign cells or antigens.
16. (TCO 5) In sickle cell disease (SCD), a mutation in hemoglobin causes deoxygenated hemoglobin to stick together in long chains, which in turn distorts red blood cells into an elongated, sickle (crescent) shape. In a person with SCD, where would red blood cells with a sickle shape be least likely to be found?
17. (TCO 5) Systolic pressure occurs
when the ventricles relax.
when the atria contract.
when the veins contract.
when the ventricles contract.
18. (TCO 5) Why do cigarette smokers cough more than most people do?
The tar in cigarette smoke tends to make alveoli stick closed. Coughing opens them.
Coughing is the respiratory system’s attempt to clear itself of the thick mucus that is produced in response to smoke exposure.
Cigarette smoking partially paralyzes the lungs; coughing exchanges the resultant dead air.
Coughing stimulates blood flow to the lungs.
19. (TCO 5) When you hold your breath, which of the following blood gas changes leads initially to the urge to breathe again?
Rising carbon monoxide level
Rising carbon dioxide level
Falling carbon monoxide level
Rising carbon dioxide level and falling carbon monoxide level
20. (TCO 5) What structure do worms use for gas exchange?
21. (TCO 5) There are many diseases of the digestive system. SjÃ¶gren’s syndrome is an autoimmune disease that destroys tear ducts and salivary glands. In megaesophagus, peristalsis fails to occur properly and the esophagus is enlarged. In achlorhydria (also called hypochlorhydria), production of gastric acid is absent or low. When a person has diverticulitis, feces are trapped in small pouches of the large intestine, and cause infection. Infected portions of the large intestine can swell and block the large intestine. In exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, there is a progressive loss of pancreatic cells that make digestive enzymes. In gallstone cholestasis, bile cannot flow from the liver to the duodenum. Regurgitation of food could indicate
22. (TCO 5) On a global scale, the most significant type of malnutrition is
vitamin A deficiency.
23. (TCO 5) What do the vitamins biotin and Vitamin K have in common?
They are both water-soluble vitamins.
They are both obtained from meat.
They are both produced by intestinal bacteria.
They are both common deficiencies in the human diet.
24. (TCO 5) Together with the small intestine, the _____ absorbs water.
25. (TCO 5) Bile from the liver is stored in the _____ before entering the intestine.