Reducing Infections of HPV in Young Adults
The final Thoery paper Reducing infections of HPV in young adults Papers are NOT TO EXCEED 5 pages in length, 12-point font, 1-inch margins, doublespaced. Papers beyond this length will NOT be graded. 1. Health Issue (Needs Statement—approximately ½ page) • What is the health issue? My health issue is Reduce infections of HPV types prevented by the vaccine in young adults. • What is the magnitude/severity of the problem? According to CDC, the majority of HPV infections are asymptomatic and go away on their own. Anogenital warts, precancers, and cervical cancers may all result from persistent infections. In the United States, a quadrivalent vaccine to avoid infection with four forms of HPV approve for use in 2006. • What population is at risk? (Target Population) Young adults are the target demographic at risk. • Which sub-issue(s) (i.e., behavioral or environmental component of the problem) will be addressed in the paper? According to Would Health Organization, the human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections on the planet. It is commonly contracted and spread during sexual intercourse (vaginal, oral, or anal) or skin-to-skin contact. Even when condoms use, HPV will spread. (The goal of this section is to make a case for targeting the issue) 2. Theory or Model (approximately ½ page) What theory/model is the paper covering? There are two theories that describe this health behavior uptake. The first theory is the Theory of Planned Behavior followed by the Theory of Reasoned Action. The purpose of being vaccinated is motivated by how people perceive the importance of social support for HPV vaccination together with their attitudes toward HPV vaccination (Serena et al., 2020). Looking into the Theory of Reasoned Action, societal backing perceptions for vaccination, vaccination attitudes, and perceived ability to get vaccinated determine whether one needs to receive the vaccination. According to the Theory of vaccinated Behavior, the introduction of HPV testing, most women had questions on HPV. A theoretic approach used to analyze the statistics had results fall into these areas (Harriet et al., 2015). The symptoms displayed were highly inquired by these women; the cause of HPV and how one can catch the virus; the duration in which HPV lasts in the body; consequences of contracting the virus. Most asked in this section is whether cervical cancer is indeed guaranteed; the control measures applicable and cure administered in case of infection; lastly, the testing area and vaccination areas as well. What are the constructs of the theory/model? With HPV vaccine uptake efforts enhanced, the focus of education on clinical and public health shifted to strengthening how people perceive the significance of social support for HPV vaccination (Fisher et al., 2013). How people perceive the significance of social support for HPV vaccinations have been underpinned due to this focus shift. The theory of reasoned action together with the theory of planned behavior have shifted the major aim of this analysis to see if they can foresee whether parents can be urged to get their adolescent daughters immunized by pediatricians against this virus (Anthony et al., 2011). A mail survey of 466 pediatricians was finalized to evaluate attitudes, personal norms, perceived behavioral control, behavior, and expectations. According to Christopher et al., (2018) findings, pediatricians are optimistic, have subjective standards, and perceived behavioral control when it comes to persuading parents to ensure that their daughters are immunized against HPV. They further expect to inspire the regular vaccination of these young girls against the papillomavirus in the next 30 days. Parents have been urged as well on HPV vaccination in the last 30 days. While both TRA and TPB prototypes had the same data input, results provided show that anticipated behavioral control contributes only a small amount to the general projective power of the TRA. The interventions addressing this group on vaccination indicate that their targets may shift to the norms and attitudes. In the study of Anthony et al (2011), gender differentiations were not found in any individual variable or the model’s overall fit. The findings implications were both theoretical and practical in relation to health communication message development aimed at communications to parents by pediatricians about the HPV vaccine and health care providers in general. 3. Theory/Model Application to the Health Issue (approximately 1 ½ pages) • How are individual theory/model constructs being applied to address the health issue. (Include the population(s) being targeted for change) (If it doesn’t make sense to apply all constructs to your health issue, state which constructs doesn’t and why) Future HPV vaccination interventions with young adult women may through influenced by the findings. The findings point to potentially modifiable perceptions that might be good targets for possible interventions (e.g., perceived susceptibility, perceived barriers such as vaccine safety concerns and cost, subjective norms, self-efficacy). Since self-efficacy and perceived barriers are connected, it’ll be crucial to understand the main obstacles to HPV vaccination. According to previous studies, women who are not sexually active or in a monogamous relationship have a low perception of HPV infection susceptibility. Since risk beliefs are so closely linked to both relationship status and sexual history, potential approaches would undoubtedly face challenges in changing them. Finally, physician advice finds to be an important predictor of HPV-related attitudes (e.g., perceived susceptibility, subjective norms). Given the significance of physician guidance in vaccination activity, prospective approaches should include this crucial aspect. Gerend., & Shepherd (2012). 4. Expected Impact (approximately ½ page) • What changes might you expect in the health issue from applying this theory/model? (Examples: Change in knowledge would lead to increased exercise; change in policy would lead to fewer fried foods being served in school cafeterias) The Theory of Planned Behavior was used to direct an HPV educational group intervention. The intervention was delivered in a single session using a common group format. Before the intervention, immediately after the intervention, and one month later, measurements were taken. The intervention was effective in improving awareness, behavioral intentions, HPV information seeking, and HIV testing, and these improvements were sustained over one month, as predicted. Shortly after the intervention, there were minor improvements in attitudes toward risk-reduction behaviors and subjective standards, but not at the follow-up. The intervention was ineffective in increasing perceived social norms or minimizing the number of risk behaviors (e.g., new sexual partners, using barrier contraceptives, discussing sexually transmitted infections with partners, or receiving HPV vaccine). These results support the use of a brief onetime educational intervention to reduce many HPV risk factors. Sweeney., et al, (2015). 5. Limitations for Targeted Change (approximately ½ page) • What key components of your selected sub-issue are not addressed by this theory/model? (Example: XYZ Theory/Model only addresses changing knowledge. Developing ABC skills would improve the chances of success for changing the sub-issue.) The theory of planned actions does not discuss the core components of the HPV sub-issue. Since the hypothesis focused on health behavior theories that focus on person-level predictors, the findings do not address health care system or policy level variables that could affect HPV vaccination. Gerend & Shepherd (2012). 6. Reflection (approximately ½ page) • Your thoughts on using this theory/model for behavior change I did not answer this question References Anthony J. Roberto, Janice L. Krieger, Mira L. Katz, Ryan Goei & Parul Jain (2011) Predicting Pediatricians’ Communication with Parents About the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine: An Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action, Health Communication, 26:4, 303312, DOI: 10.1080/10410236.2010.550021 Christopher, W.W., Ellen, M. D., Eric, R. W., Julie, A. B., Alan, G. N., Anna, R. G. (2018) An integrative theoretical framework for HPV vaccine promotion among male sexual minorities American journal of men’s health 12 (5), 1409-1420, Fisher, W. A., Kohut, T., Salisbury, C. M. A., & Salvadori, M. I. (2013). Understanding Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Intentions: Comparative Utility of the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behavior in Vaccine Target Age Women and Men. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 10(10), 2455–2464. https://doi.org/10.1111/jsm.12211 Gerend, M. A., & Shepherd, J. E. (2012). Predicting Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Uptake in Young Adult Women: Comparing the Health Belief Model and Theory of Planned Behavior. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 44(2), 171–180. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-012-9366-5 Harriet, B. F., Suzanne, A., Caroline, T., Matthew, H. (2015) An appraisal of theoretical approaches to examining behaviors in relation to Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of young women Preventive medicine 81, 122-131. Serena, A. R., Patricia, D. M., Diana, M. L., Lara, S.S., & Maria, E. F. (2020) Factors associated with adolescent HPV vaccination in the US: A systematic review of reviews and multilevel framework to inform intervention development Preventive medicine 131, 105968, Sweeney, J. B., McAnulty, R. D., Reeve, C., & Cann, A. (2015). An Intervention for HPV Risk Reduction Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior: An Exploratory Study with College-Aged Women. American Journal of Sexuality Education, 10(3), 199–217. https://doi.org/10.1080/15546128.2015.1049312
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