SOCI 1001 Week 5 – Lecture notes 5 Essay.

SOCI 1001 Week 5 – Lecture notes 5 Essay.


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Paradox= The deviants hold society together
● Social deviance is any transgression of social norms
● Social cohesion refers to how others interact with others
Mechanical Society= Less evolved, more similar to each other
Organic Society= Bonded by differences, compliment
● Social cohesion created through deviance
● Punitive justice makes violators suffer
● Rehabilitative justice helps violators learn from mistakes
● Social control is how society gets people to act “normal”
● Normative compliance is following societies norms
Strain Theory= Deviance occurs when society doesn’t give equal opportunities
1. Conformists= American dream
2. Innovators= Innovate ways for American dream
3. Ritualists= Not into but still follows American dream
4. Retreatists= Doesn’t accept norms or means of American dream
5. Rebels= Replace American dream
Symbolic Interactionists= Micro views of society, individuals
Labelling Theory:
● People are labeled and accept it
● People behave based off label
● Contributes to inequality
Primary Deviance= First act of rule breaking
Secondary Deviance= Rule breaking occured after
● Negative social label that changes identity and perception
Recidivism= Someone through punishment system continues to repeat ac..SOCI 1001 Week 5 – Lecture notes 5 Essay.


Week 6 Notes: Self, Society & Socializaon

Last Week
– Talked about society in broad, historic terms- macro sociology; concerned on bigger
structures as a whole. Those structures provide us with the context in which our social
behaviour plays out. 2 key paradigms; funconalist/ social con)ict area.
Today: looking at the social behaviour that occurs in the broader to the micro sociology
– Concerned more with the exchanges and interacons and choices people make in the
social context. Suggeson: keep in mind mini-essay.
The Micro- Level
– Not focus on how its happening, moves towards …?
– More interested in understanding the individual- role of the self in society, noon we
can go from dozens/ hundreds/ millions and create this pa.erns – stable borders
– How do we understand the individual in relaon to a larger social border
o Social relaons have a stability/smooth to them; norms helps this stability; in all
sociees people have generally more or less relavely constant interacons;
largely due to the establishment of norms
o Norms: established rule or standard that governs our conduct in the social
situaons in which we parcipate, almost all social behaviour involves such
standards, societal excepons– to which we are expected to conform. Ex.
Ceremonies, eque.e.SOCI 1001 Week 5 – Lecture notes 5 Essay.
o From the perspecve of the individual norms are valuable; reduce number of
decisions we have to make in all the social situaons we parcipate in. From the
perspecve of society; part of how we keep things running smoothly, “status
quo”, important to see that instrument of social control/ keeping order. Many of
our norms are also laws- punishable (signi7cant in society). A norm is a central
concept in the study of sociology.
Another key concept
Roles: sociologically important; demonstrates how individual acvity is actually socially
in)uences, therefore follows regular pa.erns. Smooth transacons is made possible not
only by norms but also roles
– Within sociology; 2 key perspecves sociologists understand roles: structure of
perspecve/ interaconist.
o Structural Perspecve: roles are prescribed pa.erns of behaviour expected of a
person in a given situaon by virtue of his/her posion in the transacon. That
is: roles are socially de7ned a.ributes and expectaon associated with social
posions. Not people individual characteriscs, people ful7lling that social
posion.SOCI 1001 Week 5 – Lecture notes 5 Essay.
Role Expectaons: A group’s or society’s de7nion of the way a speci7c
role ‘ought’ to be played. We rely on roles to predict what others do,
don’t fully understand this unl we see someone break those roles. Ex.
Nun doing shots at a bar.
o Interaconalist Perspecve: we can’t just analyze social interacon by studying
already determined roles. Instead, we need to look at how people live out their
roles, how they perceive them, what con)icts they feel in living them out, etc.
Peoples meanings behind, or understandings of, roles… Closer to the symbolic
interacons paradigm- humans communicate symbolically. Interested in role
4 steps:
(1) Idencaon of the role with ‘self’
(2) Behave in a manner appropriate to the idencaon. Don’t
simply play roles as puppets; choose way to act most suitable.
Somemes diBcult to know what the appropriate behaviour is in
the social seCng.
(3) Use the behaviour of others as cues. We get into situaons and
look to others as to how we should be acng through acons and
gestures. Shares expectaons provide regulaons in our lives.SOCI 1001 Week 5 – Lecture notes 5 Essay.
(4) Evaluaon of our performance. Once 7nished the situaon,
evaluang self. Done by self or by others leCng us know
How do people come to follow norms/ know what the norms and roles are?
– Process to which we reach understanding of norms and roles and the way we live them
out is a process called socializaon.
Socializaon: the complex learning process through which individuals develop selFood
and acquire the knowledge, skills and movaons required for parcipaon in social life.
Essenal process linking the individual and society.
o KEY POINT: socializaon is the essenal process that links the individual and
society. How we learn to 7t in and do what’s expected. Children lack
socializaon- not yet been socialized. Can be understood as valuable to
individuals; human potenality is actualized and how we survive. For society
eGecve socializaon is essenal on a daily basis so that we have predictable
pa.erns and generaonally to keep culture and society going (school systems).
o Socializaon is the process we internalize our cultural norms; it’s important to
understand these norms are NOT universal, cross cultural diGerences that re)ect
diGerent kinds of socializaon. Every society has socializaon as a process but
the content varies. We are never fully socialized. Keep in mind- a child learning
to socialize, those rules/ norms/ expectaons have all been created by people,
who decides those norms, who has the power to determine those norms?
Explore socializaon in 2 stages: Primary & Secondary
– Socializaon connues throughout our enre lives, starts with primary (basic inducon
in childhood/ adolescents) connues through lives in secondary.
Primary: micro worlds of primary groups. First stage of socializaon. In this stage
socializaon is based on emoonal relaonships of signi7cant others (caregivers), who
help the child survive. In this sense early socializaon is largely focused on children.
o Charles Horton Cooley (‘the looking-glass self”), according to Cooley the looking
glass self refers to the way the persons sense of self is derived from the
percepons of others. At the earliest stages children are dependent on others
around them for all of their needs resulng in their acons can bring to them
what they need, learn through that they have the power to in)uence others, if
they do certain things, others respond to their needs. Large part is ed up to
others view them. As people see themselves in the looking glass of others
responses (tone, gestures, responses) then that child imagines themselves
through the lives of others, senses the judgement of others, how we think others
perceive us through that they develop a feeling about themselves. Good
responses = good self-concept. For our lives our most signi7cant mirror is our
primary groups in early life- the family.
o Childs development of self, sense of self. Inially child has no concept of self,
arises from social experience. First year: spend in learning that there is another
world out there separate from child, not world and self is one.
Gender socializaon: a sub type of general socializaon
o involves the processes through which individuals learn to become feminine and
masculine according to the expectaons current in the society. The content of
‘gender socializaon’ involves shared meanings of ‘femininity’ and ‘masculinity’
o ideas about gender socializaon aren’t just told to them, the beliefs regarding
gender in children develop in part through watching men/women demonstrate
these roles. Parents are usually 7rst source of gender learning (room decorang),
studies show that parents hold and communicate diGerence expectaons of
males and females (ex. Within 24hrs of childhood 7rst me parents with
daughters described delicate, gentle.. with sons hardy).SOCI 1001 Week 5 – Lecture notes 5 Essay.
Secondary Socializaon: social learning that occurs aKer childhood/ adolescents. Takes
place in a bigger social works (works, schools, universies). Usually less intense. Primary
socializaon lays the base. Occurs because society changes, norms/ roles/ expectaon
changes over me and we have to learn new things.
o Ancipatory socializaon: process by which knowledge and skills are learned for
future roles. (New parents, wedding, socializaon for professional careers in
o Re-socializaon: occurs when a new roles or a new situaon requires a person to
replace established pa.erns with new pa.erns to meet new role demands. Can
be voluntary Going into university, becoming a jail guard. Involuntary we
didn’t ask for the change, becoming divorced or widowed, put in jail, can be
diBcult, painful.SOCI 1001 Week 5 – Lecture notes 5 Essay.

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