Soil Water Nutrients Storm Water Lab Report

Soil Water Nutrients Storm Water Lab Report

            The speedily expanding population has led to high demand for water and food. This growth also leads to increased demand for land for settlement purposes. With this population growth, the need for proper planning and expanded research becomes a necessity. Various research has been conducted by environmentalists to identify analyze and give the correct advice on various issues such as nutrients levels in the soil. In line with this, experiments have been conducted to identify the infiltration which in turn expounds on how the soils absorb water. Infiltration is a crucial practice because it guides on type of irrigation and the designing of the drainage system. Infiltration also plays a major role in evaluation of the levels of contamination, water pans, ground water recharge, drought and more so flood management (Cunningham, 2015). Infiltration is the process in which water on the ground percolates into the soil. Infiltration capacity on the other hand is the maximum rate of infiltration. Infiltration study is applied in both soil science and hydrology.

The storm water resulting from rainfall together with molten ice and snow can also percolate in the soil. This process is referred to as storm water infiltration (Ferguson 2017). The storm water can infiltrate or run on the surface which may result to washing away of soil nutrients and draining them into rivers, ponds, lakes, and oceans. Research studies have proved that runoff pollutant in urban results to deterioration of water quality (Crabill 1999). Bearing in mind of all this fact, we carried out an intense research in our school Stetson University, Michigan avenue(I3Group), to examine nutrient levels of Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and potassium in the soil after infiltration. While undertaking the experiment, we were guided by three pre practical questions which included; i).do our storm water basins have the ability and capacity to hold all storm water runs off the campus during an average 2″/hr storm?. We ought to make a comparison between the rate of discharge in the campus and the total discharge rate of the basins (ii). Do nutrients accumulate at the bottom of the basins (iii). Are excess nutrients running off to the campus?.iv).Is the basin providing the filtration that is supposed to?. v). How does the soil texture relate with infiltration and nutrient concentration in the basin?

In order to Answer the question highlighted above, I did perform a number of experiments which included ;The rate of infiltration at an adjacent elevated surface; The rate of infiltration of the storm water basin; The area of storm water basin; The discharge capacity(QC) of the storm water basin; The level of Nitrogen, phosphorous and Potassium nutrients. It was important to note that infiltration is affected by factors such as slope, soil texture, soil moisture, and organic materials in the soil. From the class book reading, it is evident that if the area covered by the basin contains compacted soil like moist clay organic matter, infiltration rate tends to be slow.

 

Methods

            The data collection for the experiment was conducted within the vicinity of

our school on 24th of September 1st of October. On 24th, the weather was dry and sunny while on 1st October the weather was cloudy. In the experiment, the observation was on the method used to collect the raw data because it was clear to see what was happening and be able to record the results. After pouring water into the three holes dug on the ground, I started the clock to record the level of water infiltration after three minutes in all the three holes. After the experiment, soil sample from the three holes were taken. I used the color-based reagents to help me in identifying the nutrients present in the basin soil. After conducting the experiments, I started to answer the specified questions that guided me throughout the experiment. One of the questions was to determine whether storm water basins had the capacity to hold all storm water that runs off campus.

To elaborate this further, I manipulated the obtained data to provide response to the questions. I compared the QC water for the campus by using the campus map to calculate the total area of the campus discharge and the area of preference on sample taking. This was done in different parts of the campus. The flow rate of storm water was observed to be 21.7 in comparison to 40.2 of basins infiltration rate.

The figures are a total of basin water infiltration rate and the basin discharge capacity. Therefore QC=infiltration rate × area of the storm water basin. The figures depict that the storm water basin is capable of holding the storm water that runs off the campus. The other question was to determine if the nutrients accumulation was at the bottom of the basin or in the running off the campus. It is observed that the most nutritious soil is the topmost part Which contains organic matter.

 

Results

 

From the experiment it clear that most of the soil nutrients in the campus are washed away because the topsoil is sand which have poor water retention. It is also established that nutrients do not accumulate at the bottom due to running water washing them away. This shows that basin infiltration Rate has an impact on concentration. During the study mean statistical model was employed. This method applies averages to make comparisons. Nutrients concentration was determined from the graph through observation after the plotting the concentration levels against infiltration rates for the three nutrients.

 

        Storm water      
        basin dis      
      Storm cap      
Location Infiltration at storm water water (Qc) Qc =      
see adj elevated Basin infi base inf rate x      
map surface(m/s) rate(m/s) area (m2) area (m3/s) N inside P inside K inside
               
I1   0.0099 1018 10.0782 180 20 80
I2 0.003 0.0035 78.5 0.27475 160 20 160
I3 0.003 0.0035 359 1.2565 40 31 120
I4 0.0072 0.0077 432 3.3264 100 20 120
I5 0.025 0.0043 76.2 3.2766 40 20 60
I6 0.0042 0.0029 552 1.6008 40 20 80
I7 0.023 0.0126 3255 41.013 40 64 120
0.827 Total Qc for basins 60.82625 85.71 27.86 105.71

Graph of basin infiltration against Nitrogen nutrient

 

 

 

Stormwater Basin Infiltration Rate (m/s) [N] Inside
0.0099 180
0.0035 160
0.0035 40
0.0077 100
0.0043 40
0.0029 40
0.0126 40

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Graph of basin infiltration against Phosphorous nutrient

 

Stormwater Basin Infiltration Rate (m/s) [P] Inside
0.0099 20
0.0035 20
0.0035 31
0.0077 20
0.0043 20
0.0029 20
0.0126 64

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Graph of basin infiltration against Potassium nutrient

 

 

Stormwater Basin Infiltration Rate (m/s) [K] Inside
0.0099 80
0.0035 160
0.0035 120
0.0077 120
0.0043 60
0.0029 80
0.0126 120

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

From the above tables and graphs, we can see their relationship between the infiltration rate and soil nutrients. Table1 and Graph one shows the infiltration rate and soil concentration of nitrogen as soil nutrient. From the graph, we notice that the level of nitrogen concentration increases with an increase in the infiltration rate. Since infiltration is affected by many factors, we see from the graph that point 0.006 has a higher nitrogen concentration level than other points. Table 2 and Graph 2 shows phosphorus concentration level sand infiltration rate. From the graph, we notice that that there is a decrease in phosphorus level as the infiltration rate increases. Therefore, faster infiltration rates affect phosphorus concentration, which must be regulated to ensure the nutrients are maintained in the soil.

 

 

Table 3 and Graph three shows potassium concentration levels. Potassium concentration levels appear to be fluctuating as infiltration rates increase. From the results above, potassium concentration in the soil is not significantly affected by infiltration rates, but other factors such as soil texture and soil moisture may influence the concentration levels. Soil texture can help wash away the nutrients since the same soil cannot filter them due to its surface.

 

 

Discussion

 

The primary nutrients found in the soil that promotes healthy growth of plants are Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium. The nutrients also lead to increase in productivity. There is dire need to ensure that these nutrients are available in the soil. From the experiment the rate of infiltration and nutrients concentration was determined. The relationship between the two was also analyzed. It was established that high infiltration rates lead to a decrease in phosphorous concentration in the soil which is Contrary to nitrogen and Potassium. It is also established that storm water basin could accommodate all storm water that runs off the campus. The hypothesis of the study is that if the basin areas have compact soil like moist clay organic matter, the infiltration rate could be less.

Conclusion

The results and analysis of the experiment support the hypothesis because it is found that sandy soil areas had the highest infiltration rate, which from the experiment was 0.12. It also supports the expanded themes elaborated in the introduction part. Infiltration is crucial in irrigation drainage, designing of the drainage systems and controlling of floods. Infiltration rates can also be of importance to the engineers in designing drainage systems in towns and cities. Farmers also utilize the knowledge of infiltration rates to determine the type of irrigation to apply 8n their farms. (Ohno et.al.2015). The major challenge experienced when conducting the experiment was that there was no room for experimenting the infiltration rates on steep areas. No arising questions emerged because the study and experiments catered for all pre laid questions, which were all adequately answered.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Crabill, C., Donald, R., Snelling, J., Foust, R. and Southam, G., 1999. The impact of sediment fecal coliform  reservoirs  on seasonal water quali

Cunningham, W., & Cunningham, M. A. (2015). Principles of environmental science. McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Ferguson, B. K. (2017). Stormwater infiltration. CRC Press.

Li, Y.,&Wang, C.(2009).Impacts of urbanization on surface run off of the Dardenne Creek watershed, St. Charles County, Missouri. Physical Geography, 30(6),556-573. https://doi.org/10.2747/0272-3646.30.6.556

Liu, Y., Dunkerley, D.,López-Vicente, M.,Shi, Z.,&Wu, G.(2020).Trade-off between surface run off and soil erosion during the implementation of ecological restoration programs in semiarid regions: A meta-analysis. Science of The Total Environment, 712,136477. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.136477

Nadal-Romero, E., Cortesi, N., & González-Hidalgo, J. C. (2020). Weather types run off and sediment yield in a Mediterranean mountain landscape. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 39(4),427-437. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3451

Ohno, T., & Zibilske, L. M. (2015). Determination of low concentrations of phosphorus in

soil extracts using malachite green. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 55(3), 892-895.