Testing Skeletal Muscle Fitness and Basal Metabolic Information Lab
MODULE 4 LAB Objective: This ‘’lab’’ tests the use of your skeletal and muscular system Procedure: You will perform a series of physical assessment activities for this lab to assess fitness. Please be sure to stay within your safety and comfort zone. There are helpful videos in the “How To” folder that is in this modules lab. A. Vertical Jump Test This procedure describes the method used for directly measuring the vertical jump height jumped. Equipment/Materials required: Measuring tape or marked wall, chalk for marking wall Procedure (see also variations below): a. The athlete stands side on to a wall and reaches up with the hand closest to the wall. b. Keeping feet flat on the ground, the point of the fingertips is marked or recorded. This is called the standing reach height. c. The athlete then stands away from the wall, and leaps vertically as high as possible using both arms and legs to assist in projecting the body upwards. The jumping technique can or cannot use a countermovement. Attempt to touch the wall at the highest point of the jump. d. The difference in distance between the standing reach height and the jump height is the score. e. The best of three attempts should be recorded. Variations: a. The vertical jump test can also be performed using a specialized apparatus called the Vertec . The procedure when using the Vertec is very similar to as described above. b. Jump height can also be measured using a jump mat which measures the displacement of the hips. To be accurate, you must ensure the feet land back on the mat with legs nearly fully extended. c. The vertical jump test is usually performed with a counter movement, where there is bending of the knees immediately prior to the jump. The test can also be performed as a squat jump, starting from the position of knees being bent. d. Other test variations are to perform the test with no arm movement (one hand on hip, the other raised above the head) to isolate the leg muscles and reduce the effect of variations in coordination of the arm movements. The test can also be performed off one leg, with a step into the jump, or with a run-up off two feet or one foot, depending on the relevance to the sport involved. Vertical Jump Norm Table Males Females Rating (inches) (cm) (inches) (cm) excellent > 28 > 70 > 24 > 60 very good 24 – 28 61-70 20 – 24 51-60 above average 20 – 24 51-60 16 – 20 41-50 average 16 – 20 41-50 12 – 16 31-40 below average 12 – 16 31-40 8 – 12 21-30 poor 8 – 12 21-30 4 – 8 11-20 very poor < 8 < 21 < 4 < 11 The table below categorizes the vertical jump height in centimeters and inches for adult men and women. This ranking scale is based on observations and will give a general idea of what is a good score. B. Sit and Reach Flexibility Test The sit and reach tests are a common measure of flexibility, and specifically measures the flexibility of the lower back and hamstring muscles. This test is important as because tightness in this area is implicated in lumbar lordosis, forward pelvic tilt and lower back pain. This test was first described by Wells and Dillon (1952) and is now widely used as a general test of flexibility. Procedure: a. This test involves sitting on the floor with legs stretched out straight ahead. Shoes should be removed. b. The soles of the feet are placed flat against the box/wall. Both knees should be locked and pressed flat to the floor – the tester may assist by holding them down. With the palms facing downwards, and the hands-on top of each other or side by side, the subject reaches forward along the measuring line as far as possible. Ensure that the hands remain at the same level, not one reaching further forward than the other. c. After some practice reaches, the subject reaches out and holds that position for one-two seconds while the distance is recorded. Make sure there are no jerky movements. Variations: There are a few variations of the test. Many of the variations of this test involve the differences in the value of the level of the feet. The most logical measure is to use the level of the feet as recording zero, so that any measure that does not reach the toes is negative and any reach past the toes is positive. However, using negative values is more difficult for statistical analyses, and for comparing results. (You can make your own sit and reach box or using available chairs, tables or other objects and a marking surface with a ruler attached). Scoring: The score is recorded to the nearest centimeter or half inch as the distance reached by the hand. Some test versions use the level of the feet as the zero mark, while others have the zero mark 9 inches before the feet. There is also the modified sit and reach test which adjusts the zero-mark depending on the arm and leg length of the subject. The table below gives you a general guide for expected scores (in cm and inches) for adults using zero at the level of the feet (otherwise add 23cm or nine inches). There are also examples of some actual athlete results . Rating Men Women cm inches cm inches super > +27 > +10.5 > +30 > +11.5 excellent +17 to +27 +6.5 to +10.5 +21 to +30 +8.0 to +11.5 good +6 to +16 +2.5 to +6.0 +11 to +20 +4.5 to +7.5 average 0 to +5 0 to +2.0 +1 to +10 +0.5 to +4.0 fair -8 to -1 -3.0 to -0.5 -7 to 0 -2.5 to 0 poor -20 to -9 -7.5 to -3.5 -15 to -8 -6.0 to -3.0 very poor < -20 < -7.5 < -15 < -6.0 C. Push up test at home How many can you do? Men should use the standard military style” pushup position with only the hands and the toes touching the floor. Women have the additional option of using the “bent knee” position. To do this, kneel on the floor, hands on either side of the chest and keep your back straight. Do as many pushups as possible until exhaustion. Count the total number of pushups performed. Use the chart below to find out how you rate. Compare your results to the table below. Remember, these scores are based on doing the tests as described and may not be accurate if the test is modified at all. Don’t worry too much about how you rate – just try and improve your own score. Push Up Test (Men) Push Up Test (Women) Age Rating 17-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-65 Excellent > 56 > 47 > 41 > 34 > 31 > 30 Good 47-56 39-47 34-41 28-34 25-31 24-30 Above average 35-46 30-39 25-33 21-28 18-24 17-23 Average 19-34 17-29 13-24 11-20 9-17 6-16 Below average 11-18 10-16 8-12 6-10 5-8 3-5 Poor 4-10 4-9 2-7 1-5 1-4 1-2 Very Poor < 4 < 4 < 2 0 0 0 Age 17-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-65 Excellent > 35 > 36 > 37 > 31 > 25 > 23 Good 27-35 30-36 30-37 25-31 21-25 19-23 Above Average 21-27 23-29 22-30 18-24 15-20 13-18 Average 11-20 12-22 10-21 8-17 7-14 5-12 Below average 6-10 7-11 5-9 4-7 3-6 2-4 Poor 2-5 2-6 1-4 1-3 1-2 1 Very Poor 0-1 0-1 0 0 0 0 D. Sit Up Test at Home Abdominal muscle strength and endurance is important for core stability and back support. This sit up test measures the strength and endurance of the abdominals and hip-flexor muscles. How many sit-ups can you do in 1 minute? Count how many you can do in one minute and then check the chart below for your rating. Starting Position: Lie on a carpeted or cushioned floor with your knees bent at approximately right angles, with feet flat on the ground. Your hands should be resting on your thighs. Technique: Squeeze your stomach, push your back flat and raise high enough for your hands to slide along your thighs to touch the tops of your knees. Don’t pull with you neck or head and keep your lower back on the floor. Then return to the starting position. Compare your results to the table below. Remember, these scores are based on doing the tests as described and may not be accurate if the test is modified at all. Don’t worry too much about how you rate – just try and improve your own score. 1 minute sit up test (Men) E. Illinois Agility Test Agility is an important component of many team sports, though it is not always tested, and is often difficult to interpret results. The Illinois Agility Test (Getchell, 1979) is a commonly used test of agility in sports, and as such there are many norms available. Purpose: to test running agility Age 18-25 26-35 36-45 46-55 56-65 65+ Excellent >49 >45 >41 >35 >31 >28 Good 44-49 40-45 35-41 29-35 25-31 22-28 Above average 39-43 35-39 30-34 25-28 21-24 19-21 Average 35-38 31-34 27-29 22-24 17-20 15-18 Below Average 31-34 29-30 23-26 18-21 13-16 11-14 Poor 25-30 22-28 17-22 13-17 9-12 7-10 Very Poor <25 <22 <17 <13 <9 <7 Age 18-25 26-35 36-45 46-55 56-65 65+ Excellent >43 >39 >33 >27 >24 >23 Good 37-43 33-39 27-33 22-27 18-24 17-23 Above average 33-36 29-32 23-26 18-21 13-17 14-16 Average 29-32 25-28 19-22 14-17 10-12 11-13 Below Average 25-28 21-24 15-18 10-13 7-9 5-10 Poor 18-24 13-20 7-14 5-9 3-6 2-4 Very Poor <18 <13 <7 <5 <3 <2 Equipment required: flat non-slip surface, marking cones, stopwatch and measuring tape Procedure: The length of the course is 10 meters and the width (distance between the start and finish points) is 5 meters. Four cones are used to mark the start, finish and the two turning points. Another four cones are placed down the center an equal distance apart. Each cone in the center is spaced 3.3 meters apart. Subjects should lie on their front (head to the start line) and hands by their shoulders. On the ‘Go’ command the stopwatch is started, and the athlete gets up as quickly as possible and runs around the course in the direction indicated, without knocking the cones over, to the finish line, at which the timing is stopped. (https://www.topendsports.com/testing/tests/illinois-modified.htm) F. Aerobic Endurance Walk and Run Tests Cardiovascular endurance, or aerobic fitness, is the ability to exercise continuously for extended periods without tiring and is an important component of many sporting activities. Walking or running tests are popular for determining aerobic fitness, as they can be performed by people of all ages and fitness levels, large groups can be done at once, and the tests are easy to conduct. As these tests are usually performed outdoors, the environmental conditions can greatly affect results. You should try and control for any conditions that may affect the results, such as extreme heat or cold, or strong winds or poor condition of the running surface. For running courses that involve running laps around a field or track, the effect of wind can be balanced our as they progress around the track. Record any conditions if possible so that these may be taken into consideration when analyzing the results. Depending on the target population, there are several different tests you can use. For those that are unfit or elderly, the Rockport Walking Test or the 6-minute walk test may be suitable. For relatively fit adults, the test should be at least 10 minutes to ensure the energy demands are primarily supplied by the aerobic system. Shorter runs are more suitable for children. Record your time for 10 min and compare your fitness level Agility Run Ratings (seconds) Rating Males Females Excellent < 15.2 < 17.0 Good 16.1-15.2 17.9-17.0 Average 18.1-16.2 21.7-18.0 Fair 18.3-18.2 23.0-21.8 Poor > 18.3 > 23.0 G. Determine your BMI Assessment of weight and health risk involves using three key measures: 1. Body mass index (BMI) 2. Waist circumference 3. Risk factors for diseases and conditions associated with obesity Body Mass Index (BMI) BMI is a useful measure of overweight and obesity. It is calculated from your height and weight. BMI is an estimate of body fat and a good gauge of your risk for diseases that can occur with more body fat. The higher your BMI, the higher your risk for certain diseases such as heart disease, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, gallstones, breathing problems, and certain cancers. Although BMI can be used for most men and women, it does have some limits: • It may overestimate body fat in athletes and others who have a muscular build. • It may underestimate body fat in older persons and others who have lost muscle. Use the BMI Calculator or BMI Tables to estimate your body fat. The BMI score means the following: Waist Circumference Measuring waist circumference helps screen for possible health risks that come with overweight and obesity. If most of your fat is around your waist rather than at your hips, you’re at a higher risk for heart disease and type 2 diabetes. This risk goes up with a waist size that is greater than 35 inches for women or greater than 40 inches for men. To correctly measure your waist, stand and place a tape measure around your middle, just above your hipbones. Measure your waist just after you breathe out. Note: Listed below are some conditions associated with obesity Along with being overweight or obese, the following factors will put you at greater risk for heart disease and other conditions: Risk Factors High blood pressure (hypertension) High LDL cholesterol (“bad” cholesterol) Low HDL cholesterol (“good” cholesterol) High triglycerides High blood glucose (sugar) Family history of premature heart disease Physical inactivity Cigarette smoking The good news is even a small weight loss (between 5 and 10 percent of your current weight) will help lower your risk of developing those diseases. BMI Underweight Below 18.5 Normal 18.5-24.9 Overweight 25.0-29.9 Obesity 30.0 and Above Use the following website to calculate your BMI based on your height and weight: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/lose_wt/BMI/bmicalc.htm Lab Report: 1. Write up a fitness lab report of your fitness levels determined by individual fitness tests (A to E), the overall fitness score, and your BMI information. This can be a Word document or ppt file. 2. Each slide should have a brief description of the test and your score as well as a photo of you doing the test. 3. Conclusions you draw on a personal level about this lab as applicable to your personal life; 4. Conclusions you draw on steps you can take now and, in the future, to improve or maintain your overall fitness level 5. Develop a brief “Personal Plan of Action” toward improved or maintained fitness adapted to target fitness areas in need of improvement, even if slight by targeting 1 immediate and 1 long-term action comprising part of your Personal Plan of Action; and Note: Include images of your doing each of the fitness tests involved in this home lab (you may eliminate your “facial features” if you choose to do so). This is important otherwise you will not receive full credit.
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