W6 Advertisement and Media Discussion

W6 Advertisement and Media Discussion

You could watch these two videos and just choose one and write about it.  Also make two comments based on the discussions I attach.


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Chapter 13 Media Economics and the Global Marketplace Storytelling as Business Strategy In the end, compelling narratives are what attract people to media—whether in the form of books or blogs, magazines or movies, TV shows or talk radio. The Structure of the Media Industry O Three common structures O Monopoly O One firm dominates production and distribution in a particular industry. O Oligopoly O A few firms dominate an industry. O Limited competition O Many producers and sellers, but only a few products within a particular category The Performance of Media Organizations O Collecting revenue O Direct payment O Indirect payment O Commercial strategies and social expectations O Economies of scale principle O Economic analyses let consumers examine instances when mass media fall short. Deregulation Trumps Regulation O Major regulation legislation O Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) O Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) O Celler-Kefauver Act (1950) O Escalation of deregulation O Carter, Reagan weakened controls. O Some thought deregulation would lower prices and others predicted mergers—both were right. Deregulation Trumps Regulation (cont.) O Deregulation continues today. O In 1995, News Corp. received a special dispensation allowing it to own and operate the Fox network and a number of local TV stations. O In 2007, the newspaper-broadcast cross-ownership rule was relaxed. O Deregulation movement has returned media economics to nineteenth-century principles. Media Powerhouses: Consolidation, Partnerships, and Mergers O Major deals O In 1995, Disney bought ABC for $19 billion and Time Warner bought Turner Broadcasting for $7.5 billion. O Time Warner merged with AOL—a $106 billion deal—in 2001, only to spin the company off by 2009. O Comcast purchased a majority stake in NBC Universal in 2009. Media Powerhouses: Consolidation, Partnerships, and Mergers (cont.) O Until the 1980s, antitrust rules attempted to ensure diversity of ownership among competing businesses. O Media competition has been usurped by media consolidation. O Most media companies have skirted monopoly charges by purchasing diverse types of mass media. Business Tendencies in Media Industries O Flexible markets O Elastic economy O Expansion of the service sector O Need to serve individual consumer preferences O Relies on cheap labor O Demands rapid product development and efficient market research O Decline in the number of workers who belong to labor unions Business Tendencies in Media Industries (cont.) O Downsizing O Supposed to make companies more flexible and profitable O Problematic results O Companies unable to compete due to too few employees and a decline in innovation O Main beneficiaries have been CEOs. O Significant wage gap Table 13.1: How Many Workers Can You Hire for the Price of One CEO? Economics, Hegemony, and Storytelling O Hegemony O Acceptance of the dominant values in a culture by those who are subordinate to those who hold economic and political power O Must convince consumers and citizens that the interests of the powerful are common sense and thus normal or natural Economics, Hegemony, and Storytelling (cont.) O Storytelling O Used by candidates running for office to espouse their connection to Middle American commonsense and “down home” virtues O Narratives work by identifying with the culture’s dominant values. O Hegemony explains why we sometimes support plans that may not be in our best interest. The Rise of Specialization and Synergy O Specialization O Magazine, radio, and cable industries sought specialized markets to counter TV’s mass appeal. O By the 1980s, television embraced niche marketing. O Young and old viewers sought other specialized forms of media. The Rise of Specialization and Synergy (cont.) O Synergy O The promotion and sale of different versions of a media product across the various subsidiaries of a media conglomerate O Default business mode of most media companies today Disney: A Postmodern Media Conglomerate O The early years O Set the standard for popular cartoons and children’s culture O The company diversifies. O Expanded into live action and documentaries and embraced TV O Started Buena Vista, a distribution company O Rereleased movies Disney: A Postmodern Media Conglomerate (cont.) O Global expansion O Death of Walt Disney in 1966 triggered a period of decline. O Michael Eisner initiated a turnaround in 1984. O Touchstone movie division O Hand-drawn animated hits O Partnered with Pixar Animation Studios, creating computer-animated blockbusters Disney: A Postmodern Media Conglomerate (cont.) O Disney came to epitomize the synergistic possibilities of media consolidation. O Continued finding new sources of revenue through the 1990s O Purchased ABC, including ESPN O Launched Broadway musicals O Opened more theme parks O Introduced the Disney Channel to the Middle East and North Africa Disney: A Postmodern Media Conglomerate (cont.) O Corporate shake-ups O Early 2000s brought multiple problems for Disney. O Robert Iger replaced Eisner and O Repaired the relationship with Pixar O Landed a distribution deal with DreamWorks studios O Sold Miramax and its radio stations O Became a partner in Hulu.com O Purchased Marvel Entertainment Global Audiences Expand Media Markets O International expansion has allowed media conglomerates some advantages. O As media technologies get cheaper and more profitable, American media proliferate inside and outside national boundaries. O Globalism permits companies that lose money on products at home to profit abroad. The Internet and Convergence Change the Game O Companies struggle in the transition to digital. O Traditional broadcast and cable services have challenged sites like YouTube for displaying content without permission. O These companies are unsure of how to get people accustomed to free online content to pay. The Internet and Convergence Change the Game (cont.) O New digital media conglomerates O Largest digital media companies O Amazon, Apple, Facebook, Google, and Microsoft O Each has become powerful for a different reason. O Still need to provide compelling narratives to attract people O Digital age favors small, flexible startup companies. The Limits of Antitrust Laws O Diversification O Most media companies diversify, never fully dominating a particular media industry. O Promotes oligopolies O Local monopolies O Antitrust laws aim to curb national monopolies, not local, and have no teeth globally. The Fallout from a Free Market O Lack of public debate on the tightening oligopoly structure of international media boils down to two major issues: O Reluctance to criticize capitalism O Debate over how much control consumers have in the marketplace O Consumer control differs from consumer choice Cultural Imperialism O Cultural imperialism O Refers to American styles dominating the globe O Although many indigenous forms of media culture are popular, U.S. dominance in producing and distributing mass media puts a severe burden on countries attempting to produce their own cultural products. Cultural Imperialism (cont.) O Supporters O Creates an arena in which citizens can raise questions O Universal popular culture creates a global village. O Critics O Protests can be turned into products and lose their bite. O “Cultural dumping” hampers the development of native cultures. O Causes cultural disconnection The Media Marketplace and Democracy O Superficial consumer concerns, not broader social issues, dominate the media agenda. O Mass media mergers make public debate over economic issues difficult. O Local groups and consumer movements are working to challenge “Big Media.” Chapter 15 Should Life Imitate Culture? Since the emergence of popular music, movies, television, and video games as influential mass media, the relationship between make-believe stories and real-life imitation has drawn a great deal of attention. Researching the Effect of Mass Media on Individuals and Society  Media effects research  Attempts to understand, explain, and predict the effects of mass media on individuals and society  Cultural studies  Focuses on how people make meaning, articulate values, comprehend reality, and arrange experiences through cultural symbols Early Media Research Methods  Propaganda analysis  Public opinion research  Social psychology studies  Marketing research Early Theories of Media Effects  Hypodermic-needle model  Media shoot effects directly into unsuspecting victims.  Minimal-effects model  Researchers argued that people generally engage in selective exposure and selective retention with regard to the media. Early Theories of Media Effects (cont.)  Uses and gratifications model  Researchers studied the ways in which people used the media to satisfy various emotional or intellectual needs. Conducting Media Effects Research  Private or proprietary research  Generally conducted for a business, a corporation, or a political campaign  Usually applied research  Public research  Usually takes place in academic and government settings  More often theoretical information Conducting Media Effects Research (cont.)  Most research today employs the scientific method.  Identify the research problem.  Review existing research.  Develop a working hypothesis.  Determine an appropriate method.  Collect information or relevant data.  Analyze results.  Interpret the implications. Conducting Media Effects Research (cont.)  Scientific method relies on:  Objectivity  Reliability  Validity  Hypotheses  Tentative general statements that predict the influence of an independent variable on a dependent variable Conducting Media Effects Research (cont.)  Experiments  Test whether a hypothesis is true  Utilize an experimental group and a control group  Survey research  Collecting and measuring data from a group of respondents  Content analysis  Studies specific media messages Contemporary Media Effects Theories  Social learning theory  Four-step process     Attention Retention Motor reproduction Motivation  Agenda-setting  Media set the agenda for major topics of discussion. Contemporary Media Effects Theories (cont.)  Cultivation effect  Heavy viewing of television leads individuals to perceive reality in ways consistent with portrayals on television.  Spiral of silence  Those whose views are in the minority will keep their views to themselves for fear of social isolation. Contemporary Media Effects Theories (cont.)  Third-person effect  People believe others are more affected by media messages than they are themselves.  Instrumental in censorship Evaluating Research on Media Effects  Media effects research is inconsistent and often flawed.  Continues to resonate because it offers an easy- to-blame social cause for real-world violence  Limits on research  Funding  Inability to address how media affect communities and social institutions Early Developments in Cultural Studies Research  Karl Marx and Antonio Gramsci  Investigated how mass media support existing hierarchies  Examined how popular culture and sports distract people from redressing social injustices  Addressed the subordinate status of particular social groups Early Developments in Cultural Studies Research (cont.)  Frankfurt School  Three inadequacies of traditional scientific approaches    Reduce large “cultural questions” to measurable and “verifiable categories” Depended on “an atmosphere of rigidly enforced neutrality” Refused to place “the phenomena of modern life” in a “historical and moral context” Conducting Cultural Studies Research  Textual analysis  Highlights the close reading and interpretation of cultural messages  Audience studies  Subject being researched is the audience for the text.  Political economy studies  Examines interconnections among economic interests, political power, and how that power is used Cultural Studies’ Theoretical Perspectives  The public sphere  A space for critical public debate  Advanced by German philosopher Jürgen Habermas  Society in England and France in late seventeenth century and eighteenth century created spaces (coffeehouses, pubs) for public discourse. Cultural Studies’ Theoretical Perspectives (cont.)  Communication as culture  James Carey argued that communication is a cultural ritual.  Described it as “a symbolic process whereby reality is produced, maintained, repaired, and transformed”  Leads researchers to consider communication’s symbolic process as culture itself Evaluating Cultural Studies Research  Cultural studies research  Involves interpreting written and visual “texts” or artifacts as symbolic representations that contain cultural, historical, and political meaning  Affords the freedom to broadly interpret the impact of mass media  Like media effects research, it has its limits. Media Research and Democracy  Academics in media studies charged with increased specialization and use of jargon  Alienates nonacademics  Many researchers isolated from life outside of the university  Larger public often excluded from access to the research process Media Research and Democracy (cont.)  Public intellectuals based on campuses help carry on the conversations of society and culture, actively circulating the most important new ideas of the day and serving as models for how to participate in public life.